1.1 operations. Jurnal Teknologi (Science & Engineering), 78(8), 109-115.

1.1           
Introduction

In this chapter discuss the materials
involved and how the sample of Citrus Sinensis is prepared before it becomes
ready to be observed and analysed with the synthetic based mud using the
various tools which are mud balance, API Filter press, HPHT Filter press, and
Electrical Stability Voltmeter. The study will be conducted in accordance with
the API RP 13B-2 Recommended Practice for Field Testing Oil-Based Drilling
Fluids. Figure 3.1 has summarized the project flow chart of this paper which it
will be further discussed in the next section.

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Figure 3.1 Project
flowchart

 

 

1.2           
Sample
Preparation of Citrus Sinensis

The Citrus Sinensis peel powder
was prepared according to the method suggested by Scomi Oiltools Global
Research Training Centre (GRTC) Shah Alam. The method was initiated by cleaning
and cutting the Citrus Sinensis peel into small pieces and dried them in an
oven for 24 hours at 100? after being dried under the sun for 24 hours to make
sure it is completely dried.

In the following step, dried
Citrus Sinensis peels were ground using blender in order to grind them into
powder form. After that, they were sieved into two different sizes, namely fine
and coarse size as shown in Table 3.1 (Majid, N. F. A. et al., 2016). The size
of Citrus Sinensis peel used in this paper are 1.25 mm for fine particle and
6.00 mm for coarse particle. The procedures of preparing Citrus Sinensis as
Lost Circulation material can be observed from Figure 3.2.

 

Table 3.1

Definition of
particle sizes

Particle size (micron)

Particle classification

Greater than 5000 (4 mm)

Coarse size

3000 – 5000 (3 –  5 mm)

Intermediate size

2000 – 3000 (2 – 3 mm)

Medium Size

250 – 2000 (0.25 – 2 mm)

Fine size

Source: Majid, N. F. A., Ismail,
I., Hamid, M. F. (2016). Using durian rind as bridging material to overcome
fluid loss and lost circulation problems in drilling operations. Jurnal Teknologi (Science &
Engineering), 78(8), 109-115.

 

 

 

Process of cutting the CS into small
pieces
 

Process of drying the small pieces of CS
direct to the sun and dried by using oven at 100 ? for one day

 
 

Process of sieving the CS by using sieve
shaker currently size of 1.25 mm and 6.00 mm

Process of grinding the small pieces of
CS by using blender

Figure
3.2 Process of preparing lost circulation material

 

 

1.3           
Synthetic-Based
Drilling Fluid Formulation

The base component of the
synthetic based mud was prepared as shown in Table 3.2 based on the formulation
suggested by Scomi Oiltools Global Research Training Centre (GRTC) Shah Alam.

Sample 1 was originally the base
formulation for this experiment. The performance of Citrus Sinensis as lost
circulation material in synthetic-based mud was compared with varies of its
concentrations. The base mud and the base mud mixed with Citrus Sinensis using
compositions of 3 grams, 6 grams, 9 grams were tested for their rheological
properties and lost circulation as shows in Table 3.3. The rheological
properties and lost circulation were done of both particle size of Citrus
Sinensis at conditions before hot-rolling (BHR) and after hot-rolling (AHR).

 

Table 3.2

Synthetic-Based Drilling Fluid
Formulations

Component

Amount (g)

Time To Mix
(minutes)

Sarapar

153.43

5

Confi-Mul P

5

Confi-Mul S

7

Confi Gel HT

7

5

Confi-Trol HT

4

2

Lime

8

5

Water

65.74

15

Calcium Chloride

23.48

Drill Bar

215.55

10

TOTAL

489.2

60

Source: Scomi Oiltool Global
Research Training Centre (GRTC) Shah Alam.

 

Table 3.3

Seven mud samples with different quantity of
CS added

SUBSTANCE,
QUANTITY

SAMPLE

1 (Base)

2
(1.25 mm)

3
(1.25 mm)

4
(1.25 mm)

5
(6.00 mm)

6
(6.00 mm)

7
(6.00 mm)

Drilling Fluid (g)

489.2

489.2

489.2

489.2

489.2

489.2

489.2

CS (g)

0

3

6

9

3

6

9

Source: Scomi Oiltool Global
Research Training Centre (GRTC) Shah Alam.

 

1.4           
Test Methods

Standard methods as outlined in
API RP 13B-2 were used to test laboratory test fluids and evaluate the
performance of Citrus Sinensis in the term of drilling fluid properties for
instances plastic viscosity (PV), yield point (YP), 10-minutes and 10-seconds
gel strengths using a rheometer, electrical stability (ES), high-temperature
and high-pressure fluid loss (HPHT FL) and sand bed testing. The detailed
procedures of these testing are provided at the Appendix Sections.