[1] at a frequency inaudible to the ear (ultrasonic

1 Thomas ,Rajan P ,K K, Jithin et al. The proposed system „The Ultrasonic Range Detector?
employs an ultrasonic module that consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and
receiver along with anATmega16a microcontroller. It works by transmitting a
short pulse of sound at a frequency inaudible to the ear (ultrasonic sound or
ultrasound). Afterwards the microcontroller listens for an echo. The time
elapsed during transmission to echo reception gives information on the distance
to the object. We aimed at designing rangefinder free from the conventional
problems arising from the undesirable direct waves, wherein a signal level for
detecting a right signal due to the reflection waves from a ranging object is
automatically varied and the detection of the right signal is made inaccurate
by the time-dependent signal level.

2 Christofer N. Yalung, C. M. Automation of the car braking system is
an important feature in the development of the smart car. The ability of a
smart car to detect and classify an obstruction that is in varying proximities
from it play a vital role in the system’s design. In this study, EV3 Lego Mind
storm equipped with an ultrasonic sensor was used as a model of a large scale
vehicle. EV3 Lego Mind storm was programmed to slow down when it is at a
certain distance from the obstruction, and to stop when it is 15 cm away from
the obstruction. There were five obstructions: wood, paper, cloth, plastic and
metal. The distance measurement of the ultrasonic sensor and the Neural Network
was used for the classification of the obstruction and Multiple Correlation was
used for obstacle detection. There were 250 samples taken from the distance
measurements of five different types of obstruction, each with a different
cross sectional area, and a total recording time of 8 seconds. Overall, there
is a high correlation coefficient in the distance measurement of the different
types of obstruction materials. It is concluded that the ultrasonic sensor was
able to detect the five given types of obstruction. Classification performance
was very poor, which means that on the basis of distance measurement, the
ultrasonic sensor cannot effectively classify the types of obstructions.

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3 M. Hariansyah1 , Setiawan R.P.A2 , et al. The measurement of ploughing depth is still carried
out manually using ruler which pinned down into the soil through leg fissure
and its narrow leg. This practice is considered as non-valid measurement.
Therefore, an improved measurement should be developed such as using ultrasonic
sensor. The objective of this research was to (a) develop automatic mole
ploughing depth elevation measurement, and (b) gain the deviation magnitude
resulted from set point and ploughing depth elevation position. Ultrasonic
sensor was permanently attached heading to the target. A plat was attached onto
hydraulic support. The sensor will detect the ploughing depth distance when the
hydraulic lifting or lowering the mole plough. As shown in the result of
ploughing depth elevation, it could be seen that ultrasonic distance sensor was
appropriate to detect the ploughing depth. The deviation occurred at M, N, O
and P tracks with magnitude of 0,99%; 1,04%; 0,63% and 0,87% respectively.

4 Tahir, Muqaddas Bin and Abdullah, Musarat. Cars and vehicles have been incorporated into culture as one of the most
resourceful, easiest and accessible means of transportation available. But
besides being a suitable and common means, it is equally an incredibly
dangerous mode of transport. Thousands of people die in vehicle accidents each
year, whether it is accident with another vehicle or with a motionless object.
A method of early accident exposure and evasion can control several accidents
that may be associated to factors such as loss of control, careless driving,
tired/intoxicated drivers, and not paying concentration to the road. As the
current market does not present a normal safety feature in any car, the use of
sensory tools to sense potentially hazardous objects a definite distance away
and either slows the car down or shove to a safer path has not been released.
In this research paper a new technique is introduced for safety against
accidents. Eight ultrasonic sensors are used to sense different types of
objects. By implementing a possible improvement in safety/sanctuary systems in
vehicles, the vehicle and sensor would be able to operate normally until the
sensor detects possible risk. In our project, the sensor does not give output
or signal until the car comes within ~75 feet of an object, at which timer
sends information of hurdle to driver. The sensor only indicates the presence
of an object; it is up to the user or driver to tackle the hurdle.

5 C, Vigneshwari, et al. This paper is
focussed to develop an electronic navigation system for visually impaired, that
makes use of sensors for obstacle detection. People who are visually impaired
struggle every day in performing actions that can be as simple as moving from
one point to another without falling down or knocking against obstacles. An
Electronic Travel Aid (ETA) is a form of assistive technology having the
purpose of enhancing mobility for the blind and visually impaired (VI)
pedestrian. Assistive devices designed to aid visually impaired people need to
deal with two different issues: at first they need to capture contextual
information (distance of an obstacle, position of the sensors, environment
around the user), followed by their need to communicate to the user with those
observed information. Sensors are deployed for obstacle detection. The real
time signal reflected from the obstacles is collected by the sensor and Arduino
Board processes the signal. Based on the processed data, appropriate decision
is taken by the microcontroller in it. Accordingly a relevant message is
invoked from the flash memory. Further this can be extended to communicate or
deliver the decision to the subject via earphones

6 Cheng, Tsu-Jui, et al. The use of walking aids is prevalent among older
people and people with mobility impairment. Rollators are designed to support
outdoor mobility and require the user to negotiate curbs and slopes in the
urban environment. Despite the prevalence of rollators, analysis of their use
outside of controlled environments has received relatively little attention.
This Letter reports on an initial study to characterise rollator movement. An
inertial measurement unit (IMU) was used to measure the motion of the rollator
and analytical approaches were developed to extract features characterising the
rollator movement, properties of the surface and push events. The analytics
were tested in two situations: first, a healthy participant used a rollator in
a laboratory using a motion capture system to obtain ground truth. Second, the
IMU was used to measure the movement of a rollator being used by a user with
multiple sclerosis on a flat surface, cross-slope, up and down slopes and up
and down a step. The results showed that surface inclination and distance
travelled measured by the IMU have close approximation to the results from
ground truth; therefore, demonstrating the potential for IMU-derived metrics to
characterise rollator movement and user’s pushing style in the outdoor
environment.

7 Dune, C., P. Gorce, and J. P. Merlet, et al. Clinical evaluation of frailty in the elderly is the first step to
decide the degree of assistance they require. This evaluation is usually
performed once and for all by filling standard forms with macro-information
about standing and walking abilities. Advances in robotics make it possible to
turn a standard assistance device into an augmented device. The existing tests
could then be enriched by a new set of daily measured criteria derived from the
daily use of standard assistance devices. This paper surveys existing Smart
Walker to figure out whether they can be used for gait monitoring and frailty
evaluation, focusing on the user-system interaction. Biomechanical gait
analysis methods are presented and compared to robotics system designs, to
highlight their convergences and differences. On the one hand, monitoring
devices try to estimate accurately biomechanical features, whereas, on the
other hand, walking assistance and fall prevention do not systematically rely
on an accurate human model and prefer heuristics on the user-robot state.

8 Hellström, Thomas, et al. Walking aids such as rollators
help a lot of individuals to maintain mobility and independence. While these
devices clearly improve balance and mobility they also lead to increased risk
of falling accidents. With an increasing proportion of elderly in the
population, there is a clear need for improving these devices. This paper
describes ongoing work on the development of ROAR – an intelligent rollator
that can help users with limited vision, cognition or motoric abilities.
Automatic detection and avoidance of obstacles such as furniture and doorposts
simplify usage in cluttered indoor environments. For outdoors usage, the design
includes a function to avoid curbs and other holes that may otherwise cause
serious accidents. Ongoing work includes a novel approach to compensate for
sideway drift that occur both indoors and outdoors for users with certain types
of cognitive or motoric disabilities. Also the control mechanism differs from
other similar designs. Steering is achieved by activating electrical brakes
instead of turning the front wheels. Furthermore, cheap infrared sensors are
used instead of a laser scanner for detection of objects.  Altogether, the
design is believed to lead to increased acceptability, lower price and safer
operation.

 

9 Ballesteros, Joaquin, et al. Gait analysis can provide
valuable information on a person’s condition and rehabilitation progress. Gait
is typically captured using external equipment and/or wearable sensors. These
tests are largely constrained to specific controlled environments. In addition,
gait analysis often requires experts for calibration, operation and/or to place
sensors on volunteers. Alternatively, mobility support devices like rollators
can be equipped with onboard sensors to monitor gait parameters, while users
perform their Activities of Daily Living. Gait analysis in rollators may use
odometry and force sensors in the handlebars. However, force based estimation
of gait parameters is less accurate than traditional methods, especially when
rollators are not properly used. This paper presents an evaluation of force
based gait analysis using a smart rollator on different groups of users to
determine when this methodology is applicable. In a second stage, the rollator
is used in combination with two lab-based gait analysis systems to assess the
rollator estimation error. Our results show that: (i) there is an inverse
relation between the variance in the force difference between handlebars and
support on the handlebars—related to the user condition—and the estimation
error; and (ii) this error is lower than 10% when the variation in the force
difference is above 7 N. This lower limit was exceeded by the 95.83% of our
challenged volunteers. In conclusion, rollators are useful for gait
characterization as long as users really need the device for ambulation.

10 Ni, Dejing, et al. It is a challenging task
for the visually impaired to perceive environment information and walk
independently. This paper presents a novel design of a walking assistant
robotic system based on computer vision and tactile perception. A novel
rollator structure is applied to provide a strong physical support. A Kinect
device is used as eyes of the visually impaired to capture the front
environment information including color images and depth images. And ultrasonic
sensors are utilized to detect the evenness of road surface. A wearable
vibro-tactile belt is designed to provide the visually impaired with the
environment information through different vibration modes. A feature extraction
method of safe directions based on depth image compression is proposed.
Background difference method is used to realize moving object detection in
order to help the visually impaired perceive environment conditions. The
experiment results show that the wearable vibro-tactile belt is practical and
the walking assistant robotic system is effective and helpful in aiding the
visually impaired to walk independently.

11 Hellström, Thomas, et al. An intelligent rollator (IRO) was developed that aims at obstacle
detection and guidance to avoid collisions and accidental falls. The IRO is a
retrofit four-wheeled rollator with an embedded computer, two solenoid brakes,
rotation sensors on the wheels and IR-distance sensors. The value reported by
each distance sensor was compared in the computer to a nominal distance.
Deviations indicated a present obstacle and caused activation of one of the
brakes in order to influence the direction of motion to avoid the obstacle. The
IRO was tested by seven healthy subjects with simulated restricted and blurred
sight and five stroke subjects on a standardised indoor track with obstacles.
All tested subjects walked faster with intelligence deactivated. Three out of
five stroke patients experienced more detected obstacles with intelligence
activated. This suggests enhanced safety during walking with IRO. Further
studies are required to explore the full value of the IRO.

12 Martins, M., Santos, C., et al. This paper proposes to present and discuss in
detail the design of a novel handlebar of a motorized walker to be used as an
interface between the user and the motor controller of the wheels. This device
enables the user to indicate and command the direction and speed of the
walker’s motion. This new interface intends to be user-friendly and low cost.
Safety considerations are also addressed to detect user’s fall. Preliminary
results indicate that it is feasible to combine low cost sensors with a simple
motor control, allowing a smooth and enjoyable driving, and fast response of
the walker with no sense of delay.

13 MacNamara, S., , G. (2000). This
paper describes the design of a smart mobility aid for frail, visually impaired
people. The device is based on the concept of a walker or rollator-a walking
frame with wheels. This work is motivated by the fact the frail visually
impaired have extreme difficulty using conventional mobility aids such as guide
dogs or long canes. The device, which is called PAM-AID (Personal Adaptive
Mobility Aid) has two modes of operation, manual and assistive. In manual mode
the device behaves very much like a normal walker and, in addition, provides
the user with information on the environment via a speech interface. In
assistive mode, the PAM-AID assumes control of the steering and navigates
safely around obstacles. The PAM-AID was evaluated in residential homes for the
elderly.

14 Chan, A. D., & Green, J. R. (2008, May). An
overview of the Smart Rollator prototype is presented in this paper. The Smart
Rollator utilizes an ambulatory assistive device, namely a rollator, to provide
a non-obtrusive monitoring system. With the aging population, the need for
technologies that support independent living, and assist in maintaining the
health and well-being of older adults is growing. The Smart Rollator prototype
consists of a number of subsystems including: distance/speed monitoring,
tri-axial acceleration monitoring, force monitoring, seat usage monitoring, and
physiological monitoring. Data are transmitted wirelessly through a local data
terminal to a remote server. Using remote data terminals various people can
view and perform analyses on these data (e.g. rollator user, family members,
health care professionals). The Smart Rollator is intended to improve the
utility of conventional rollators by enabling remote monitoring capabilities
that will support on-going care and rehabilitation, as well as potentially
impact rollator design and prescription.

15Grondin, S. L., & Li, Q. (2013, June). Recent technological advances have allowed
the development of force-dependent, intelligently controlled smart walkers that
are able to provide users with enhanced mobility, support and gait assistance.
The purpose of this study was to develop an intelligent rule-based controller
for a smart walker to achieve a smooth interaction between the user and the
walker. This study developed a rule-based mapping between the interaction
force, measured by a load cell attached to the walker handle, and the
acceleration of the walker. Ten young, healthy subjects were used to evaluate
the performance of the proposed controller compared to a well-known
admittance-based control system. There were no significant differences between
the two control systems concerning their user experience, velocity profiles or
average cost of transportation. However, the admittance-based control system
required a 1.2N lower average interaction force to maintain the 1m/s target
speed (p = 0.002). Metabolic data also indicated that smart walker-assisted
gait could considerably reduce the metabolic demand of walking with a
four-legged walker.

16Joly, Cyril, Claire Dune, et al. Clinical
evaluation of frailty in the elderly is the first step to decide the degree of
assistance they require. Advances in robotics make it possible to turn a
standard assistance device into an augmented device that may enrich the
existing tests with new sets of daily measured criteria. In this paper we use a
standard 4 wheeled rollator, equipped with a Kinect sensors and odometers, for
biomechanical gait analysis. This paper focuses on the method we develop to
measure and estimate legs and feet position during an assisted walk. The
results are compared with motion capture data, as a ground truth. Preliminary
results obtained on four healthy persons show that relevant data can be
extracted for gait analysis. Some criteria are accurate with regards to the
ground truth, eg. foot orientation and ankle angle.

17 Valadão C,
Caldeira E, et al. This paper presents the development of a smart walker that uses a
formation controller in its displacements. Encoders, a laser range finder and
ultrasound are the sensors used in the walker. The control actions are based on
the user (human) location, who is the actual formation leader. There is neither
a sensor attached to the user’s body nor force sensors attached to the arm
supports of the walker, and thus, the control algorithm projects the
measurements taken from the laser sensor into the user reference and, then,
calculates the linear and angular walker’s velocity to keep the formation
(distance and angle) in relation to the user. An algorithm was developed to
detect the user’s legs, whose distances from the laser sensor provide the
information necessary to the controller. The controller was theoretically
analyzed regarding its stability, simulated and validated with real users,
showing accurate performance in all experiments. In addition, safety rules are
used to check both the user and the device conditions, in order to guarantee
that the user will not have any risks when using the smart walker. The
applicability of this device is for helping people with lower limb mobility
impairments.