1 ObservatoryNANO Briefing No.25 http://nanopinion.archiv.zsi.at/sites/default/files/briefing_no.25_nanotechnology_for_wireless_communications.pdf , p.1.
3 Major (Retd.) R.K. Sharma, Military Uses of Nanotechnology (Sumit Enterprises, 2013), p. 193.
4 Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, Monograph by Sanjiv Tomar https://idsa.in/monograph/nanotechnology-emerging-field-for-future-military-applications , p.66.
(e) Smart Dust (Mote) Advances in enginnering design and hardware technology have led to dramatic reduction in size, power consumption and cost for digital circuitry and wireless communication.
(d) Foldable Mobile Phone The nanotechnology enabled mobile phone is developed by Nokia, which is known as Morph Phone. The morph phone utilizes nanotechnology to allow bending, rolling and folding. Also, the development of gold nanomesh electrode by researchers of Harvard University has led to its application in fully foldable mobile phone including the flat screen display. Such designs can easily apply to reduce the weight of complex radio sets and also reduce their power consumption.
(c) Nano electromechanical System (NEMS) The advancement in NEMS have led to the development of nano scale resonators, transistors and other components of radio transceiver which are used for GHz signal processing and provide data rate in Gbs. By using these devices, soldier will be able to get real time information and stream live video of his operational area for better situational awareness. A team of researchers at Monash University have modelled the world’s first surface plasma amplification by simulated emission of radiations (SPASER) using graphene and nanotubes. This could mean that the communication device becomes small, efficient, and flexible and can be printed on textile/clothing.4
(b) Nano- Electronics Nano – electronics would enable the development of more powerful computers and transistors which can be used in wireless communication systems. The development of small transistor is in accordance with the famous Moore’s Law which states that each new chip produced will have about twice as much capacity as its predecessor.3 Nano- electronics along with IT and communication is used to develop devices which are smaller in size, energy- efficient, lighter and easily deployable.
Graphene nano electromechanical resonators and RF transistors made of Graphene will meet the future requirements of wide spectrum wireless communication by providing more tunable radio front end components and devices operating at high frequency (60 – 100 GHz).
• Electrode materials for super capacitors.2
• Very fast optical sensors and ultrasensitive chemical sensors
• Flexible graphene touch screens and circuits
• Radio frequency mixers and other components
• Graphene transistors with operating frequencies over 100GHz
(a) Graphene Electronics Graphene is a two?dimensional lattice of carbon atoms, with exceptional electrical, optical, thermal, chemical and mechanical properties. Several applications have been demonstrated by it:-
3. Potential Nanotechnology Enablers for wireless Communication
2. Wireless communication mostly uses Radio frequency (RF) signals to transmit the data from radio transmitter to radio receiver. RF electronic components use a lot of passive components, like capacitors and inductors, which cannot be miniaturized as fast as transistors and digital electronics circuits.1 The key drivers for using NT in wireless communication are: improved performance, increased use of RF spectrum (3Hz to 3THz), rugged, stable, smaller, cheaper and less power consuming devices.
NT for Wireless Communication
Radio Transceiver: – It is capable of simultaneously transmitting and receiving the radio signals in wireless communication devices. It has got transmitter and receiver units with common analogue signal processing, RF front end circuits along with common antenna.
Recipient: – The receiver output is the information that had come from the source.
Antenna: – it sends or receive the signal by converting it to radio wave or by extracting it from radio wave.
Receiver: – It extracts the information form the incoming received signal, by subtracting the baseband signal from it.
Transmitter: – The information to be sent is added to it. It processes the signal and then sends out this to antenna unit.
Source: – It originates the information that is to be conveyed. Information could be voice, text, picture, packet data etc.
Basic Wireless Communication System
1. Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected physically. Wireless communication uses electromagnetic waves to transmit the signals. In ancient time, smoke signals and carrier pigeons were used as means of wireless communication. The invention of radio by Marconi in the 1880s and many sophisticated military radio systems development during and after WW II made radio as most common wireless technologies. The wireless communication is flexible (service almost everywhere) and has low deployment cost (compare with cable systems).