A English varieties (Schaetzel & Low, 2009). Research suggests

A multilingual
class consists of students from various countries who may all speak different
languages. My multilingual class has 5 students from the Middle East, 6 from
Japan, and 5 from France. The text that I am trying to teach was published on
Guradian.com in February, 2017. The article is about a fashion photographer, David
LaChapelle. The photographer was very famous in 90’s and now he is working
again with Diesel. In this age of chaos and greed, he is all about positivity.
I will be teaching this text considering pronunciation, lexis and semantic
meaning and grammar.

Recent
discussion of and research on the teaching and learning of pronunciation have
focused on the following issues: the importance of accent, stress, intonation,
and rhythm in the comprehensibility of the speech of nonnative speakers; the
effects of motivation and exposure on the development of native-like
pronunciation; and the intelligibility of speech among speakers of different
English varieties (Schaetzel & Low, 2009). Research suggests that
environment and motivation may be more important factors in the development of
native-like pronunciation than is age at acquisition (Marinova-Todd, Marshall,
& Snow, 2000). An understanding of the features of learner accents and
their impact on intelligibility can help teachers identify and address
characteristics of learner pronunciation (Derwing & Munro, 1995). The
primary aim is that students be understood. Good pronunciation is needed for
this, but a “perfect accent” is not (Harmer, 1991). Even heavily accented
speech is sometimes intelligible and that prosodic errors (i.e., errors in
stress, intonation, and rhythm) appear to affect intelligibility more than do
phonetic errors (i.e., errors in single sounds). For this reason, pronunciation
research and teaching focus both on the sounds of language (vowels and
consonants) and on suprasegmental features—that is, vocal effects that extend
over more than one sound—such as stress, sentence and word intonation, and
speech rhythm (Crystal, 2011).

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Different
theories have backed up the use of semantic sets in vocabulary teaching.
Semantic sets have been advocated by many scholars in the field (Hashemi &
Gowdasiaei, 2005). These researchers assume that semantically related sets of
words facilitate the process of L2 vocabulary learning in two ways:

(a)
The similarity between the lexical items eases the learning task, and

(b)
They lead the learner to become aware of slight distinctions between the
related words.

One
such theory is the semantic fields theory, which provides evidence for the
efficiency of presenting semantically related sets and leads to the assumption
that semantic sets can bring about:

1.
Common approaches of establishing complex lexical networks

2.
Efficient and fruitful acquisition of words, in which learning of a new word
motivates learning of its neighbors

3.
A means of illustrating the distribution of meaning of related lexical items

Many
adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar (Rodriguez,
2009). Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective
communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for
employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social
acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that was once common
in the second language acquisition research, teachers of adult English language
learners vary in their views on how, to what extent, and even whether to teach
grammar. Indeed, in popular communicative and task-based approaches to
teaching, the second language is viewed primarily as “a tool for communicating
rather than as an object to be analyzed” (Rodriguez, 2009). Nonetheless, most
research now supports some attention to grammar within a meaningful,
interactive instructional context. Second language acquisition research has not
definitively answered many important questions regarding form-focused
instruction, studies have provided promising evidence that focus on form is
correlated with more acquisition of new grammar and vocabulary than
non-form-focused approaches. Instructors should consider learners’
developmental readiness when deciding whether a focus-on-form approach is
appropriate in a given context. Since learners with low literacy often struggle
to comprehend form in their first language, it is not advisable to teach them
grammar in the second language until they have advanced into higher stages of
literacy. It has also been suggested that focus on form should not be initiated
with beginning learners. An instructor must also consider learners’ needs and
interests in identifying the best way to draw their attention to a form and practice
using it in a meaningful context. For example, in an ESL class for landscaping
workers at an intermediate level of proficiency, an oral work report given at
the end of a shift (e.g., “I mowed the lawn, then I weeded the flower beds”)
could be used to focus students’ attention on the formation of the past tense.
Finally, a focus-on-form approach may be more difficult to use in programs in
which teachers are obligated to strictly follow mandated curricula or in which
class sizes are too large to allow much individual feedback 

I
have chosen lexis and semantic area because the important lexical difference
concerns the specificity level of each element of the bilingual pairs (e.g.
English and French). A French instruction may be less specific because a conceptual
argument has been left implicit while explicitly realized in the equivalent
English instruction. However, even when both instructions are at tile same
specificity level, differences may appear in the way semantic content is spread
over the lexical material. This is mainly due to the fact that verbs available
in both languages do not necessarily cover the same part of the initial content
(Cerbah, 1996.) Studies have shown that learners rely on their background
experiences and prior knowledge of their native language to acquire a second
language. They use structures from their first language that are comparable to
the second language transfer forms and meanings while attempting to read, speak
or write the second language (Ismaili, 2015). So, the French students need
specific supervision in this context. the use of semantic clusters without
systematically attending to certain learning specificities (e.g., learners’
vocabulary knowledge) can be detrimental to vocabulary learning, but when a
group of words has been analyzed and classified in a semantically principled
way with due attention to learning factors, they can be used with all learners,
healthy or disabled, young or adult. Therefore, there is an undeniable place
for the design and use of a semantic curriculum, which encompasses senses,
definitions, and the features of the words that can be taught over a longer
period. This type of curriculum helps the teacher to diagnose the possible
features of the word’s meaning the learner has never been taught. Furthermore,
by using a semantically oriented curriculum, the teacher can rank the words
within their semantic fields in order to identify the easiest ones to instruct
and to predict the challenges that will occur so that they require less effort.
The case with foreign language learners is that their vocabulary knowledge may
be superficially vast but insufficient since they have only an incomplete
understanding of the words and the relationships between them. Thus, their
vocabulary base lacks a firm and structured foundation. Here, the semantic
curriculum can be employed to make up this deficit. Teachers can accomplish
this in a very short time by taking the small number of words to be taught and
identifying their major features. In other words, teachers can help learners
retrieve the required words easily, recognize the organization of words, and
observe the way information can be stored in the brain by using semantically
related sets of words and pertinent exercises (Gholami & Khezrlou, 2014).

For
example this paragraph logically difficult to understand: “David LaChapelle is
sitting on a black leather sofa in a studio in Shoreditch, east London,
rattling through a mind-boggling range of subjects: the fall of Rome, the 1966
Texas University shooting, the metaphysical theories of writer Marianne
Williamson. He compares the vilification of Donald Trump at the Golden Globes
to Hitler’s rejection by the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna. Then he reaches a
crescendo, celebrating the progressive attitudes of America’s founding fathers:
“Jefferson travelled more than George Bush, and this was before they invented
aeroplanes,” he says. “These were worldly people. They had an organic garden!””

I
have 5 students from the Middle East too. When teaching English to Arabic speakers,
teachers need to take on several challenges, starting from the completely
different writing system and including problems caused by differences in the
grammatical systems of English and Arabic. As Arabic is written from right to
left, English looks backwards to Arabic speakers, meaning they
can find course books overwhelming. Adults, in particular, may be slower
in the initial stages of studying English than learners whose first language
uses the same alphabet as English. Moreover, Arabic does not have upper- and
lower-case letters and, although punctuation is introduced at
school as part of the writing system, it is given less attention
(Kharma & Hajjaj, 1989). It’s therefore common to find Arabic learners
mixing big and small letters within sentences and not using enough full stops.
I will be using this text area to especially focus on punctuation problems of
my Middle Eastern students. “Badged “Make Love Not Walls”, it centres on a band
of shiny, happy people – gay, straight, transgender, multiracial – breaking a
heart-shaped hole through a barbed wire-topped wall using an inflatable
rainbow-coloured tank, while pink smoke billows in the background. The hole
fills with colourful flowers and serves as the backdrop for a gay wedding at
which one of the grooms wears a keffiyeh-like headdress fashioned from denim.”

Japanese
tense and voice are conveyed through changes in the verb form, as in English.
What is different is that Japanese has no auxiliary verbs, so, predictably, the
formation of the progressive/perfect tenses and questions or negation in the
simple tenses cause problems for learners. Japanese verbs do not change for
person or number, the most common consequence of which is the omission of
the -s in the present simple 3rd person: she go .. / my
father work …

Like
most learners of English Japanese ESL students struggle to choose the correct
tense to convey the intended meaning (Kubota, 1999). As a brief example:
Japanese learners may be tempted to use the present simple to convey future
events, because this is how it is done in their own language (e.g., I
help you after school.)

Differences
in the circumstances in which English and Japanese use the passive and in the
ways that it is constructed may result in sentences such as He was cut
his hair or When were you come to Germany?

Grammar – Other: Japanese has a Subject-Object-Verb
word order; ‘prepositions’ follow the noun and subordinating conjunctions
follow their clause; other particles (for example, to express interrogation)
follow the sentence. All adjectival phrases, no matter how long, precede the
noun they modify. In all these aspects Japanese is different from English.
Mistakes in the production of correct English syntax are not surprising,
therefore. The noun system in Japanese has features that can result in negative
into English (Kimizuka, 1968). Articles do not exist in Japanese. The fact that
many Japanese nouns can also function as adjectives or adverbs leads to
mistakes in the choice of the correct part of speech in English (Kisano, 1976).
Nouns can be pluralized in various ways (depending for example on the degree of
respect to be conveyed) or not at all if the conetxt is clear. No distinction
is made between countability and uncountability, which are extremely
significant for the correct use of the article in English. It is little wonder
that this aspect of English continues to cause difficulty to even the most
proficient Japanese speakers of English. I will be using this paragraph to
focus on grammatical mistakes of Japanese. “LaChapelle, now 53, was a Studio 54
regular in his youth – Andy Warhol gave him his first job, at Interview
magazine in the 80s – and he crossed paths with Trump on the New York scene. “I
was repulsed by this guy,” he says. “And I’m not saying that in retrospect –
when I was 21, I could not stand him. He was always, always after the
celebrities.” Trump’s victory, he continues, “is giving people the permission
to be mean. It’s ‘greed is good’, this Bonfire of the Vanities idea of society
where the bully wins”. He launches into another dizzying speech that spans his
Lithuanian mother’s arrival in Ellis Island during the second world war (“She
didn’t talk about it much, it was very painful, but I read books and you think,
how can this happen?”), reproductive rights, Obamacare, Sandy Hook, Bob Fosse’s
Cabaret, the bleaching of the world’s coral and the theory that: “They say that
what enabled us to survive as human beings was our ability to adapt, but that
may also be our downfall.”