A the individuals involved in a situation. In literature

A manner of viewing things; an attitude.? A position from which someone or something is observed.? Point of view is the angle of considering things which shows us the opinion of feelings of the individuals involved in a situation. In literature point of view is the mode of narration that an author employs to let the readers “hear” and “see” what takes place in a story, poem, essay etc.? Point of view is a reflection of the opinion an individual from real life or fiction can have.Wales (2001), underscores the variety of meanings this notion encompasses:i) POV in the basic aesthetic sense refers to „angle of vision?.ii) Even in ordinary speech we use point of view in the figurative sense of the way of looking at a matter, rather than a scene, through someones, or thoughts.iii) Point of view in the figurative sense entails not only the presence of a conceptualizing character or focalizer, but also a particular way of conceptualizing a world-view or ideology.iv) An aspect that has been particularly developed relates point of view to the larger discourse situation of narrator-text-reader (Wales, 2001, pp.306-7).Narrative point of view:Narrative POV in the creative writing of fiction describes the narrator?s position in relative to the story being told. The following are some of the narrative POV.2i) First person view:- In this POV story is being told by a narrator. He has to use the pronoun „I? or „we? while narrating the story.ii) Second person view:- This mode is the rarest mode in literature. In this mode the reader is referred as „you? by the narrator.iii) Third person view:- This mode is the most common narrative mode in literature. In this mode of narrative the characters are referred as „he?, „she?, or „they? by the narrator.iv) Alternating person view:- Many stories in literature alternate between the first and third person.Approaches to point of view:As far as prose fiction is concerned a great deal has been written on it, Moreover, various models have been proposed for the stylistic analysis of POV.Narratologist Boris Uspensky proposed a four-way model for the study of POV in fiction (Uspensky 1973). Another narratologist, Roger Fowler (1996 1986) revised and redefined the model of Uspensky. So, it will be better to call this model “Fowler-Uspensky model”.The practitioners of stylistics have traditionally used the POV typology suggested by Fowler. Fowler (1996, p. 162) distinguishes the following three types of POV.i) Point of view on the spatio-temporal plane: It refers to how readers position the story in space and time. Various locations and deictic markers help to anchor the narrative spatially. Temporal representation has been of special interest to narratologists. They approach the relationship between textual time and story time via three notions: order, duration and frequency.ii) Point of view on the ideological plane: It is defined as the system of beliefs, values and categories by reference to which a person or society comprehends the world. Fowler (1996. P. 166) highlights two ways in which ideological point of view is linguistically indicated, one explicit and a second more indirect.iii) Point of view on the psychological plane: It „concerns the question of who is presented as the observer of a narrative, whether the author or a participating character; and the various3kinds of discourse associated with different relationships between narrator and character? (Fowler, 1996, pp. 169-70).Whenever, we speak about POV, we have to speak about focallization. Focalization is a term that emanates from narratology. But its impact is clearly visible in stylistics circles too. Genett coines focalization partly as a reaction to POV. Jahn (2007, P. 94) defined it as „the submission of (potentially limitless) narrative information to a perspectival filter?.Discussions on the nature of focalization are never too far apart from those on POV. As far as focalization and point of view is concerned the latter term seems to have been the term of choice adopted by stylisticians. To sum of, we can say that these two terms are two sides of a same coin. Both terms are capable of bringing to the fore distinctive aspects of textual style.By using the spatial temporal POV, ideological POV and psychological POV, we have decided the novel Train To Pakistan by Khushwant Singh, The Guide by R. K. Narayan, and The Great Indian Novel by Shashi Tharoor.