Abstract are always overweight, and failure to timely treatment

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome affects the
hormone system of female adults leading to hormonal imbalance. It majorly
causes problems with sex hormones and insulin leading to increased leading to
infertility, depression, heart failure, diabetes, acne and hairy body of the
female patients. Usually, the ovary produces several hormones such as estrogen,
progesterone, and low levels of androgen. Both estrogen and androgen regulate
the menstrual cycle while androgen helps in the development of bones and
muscles. The pancreas has beta cells which produce the insulin necessary for
control of blood sugar levels. PCOS affects the functioning of insulin by
making the body to resist the activities of the hormone leading to high sugar
levels in the patients’ blood. Insulin resistance is thus the cause of diabetes
associated with the syndrome. The main problem of PCOS is its effects in the
hormonal balance as it makes the ovary to increase the production of androgen.
Excessive male hormones on the female body lead to the development of masculine
features such as acne, hairy body, and baldness. It inhibits the ovulation
process resulting in irregular periods and even infertility among the patients.
The victims may as well suffer from depressions, heart failure, breathing
difficulties and baldness.

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Introduction

PCOS is a problem in women associated with
a hormonal imbalance that arise from the presence of multiple cysts in the
ovary (Nardo & Wadhwa, 2013).
The sex hormone lacks balance as the ovary produces more androgen causing the
patients to develop some male features such as the hairy face, chest and lower
abdomen and acne. Women suffering from the syndrome have pregnancy challenges
as they rarely see their periods while some may experience heavy periods when
they occur. The excessive production of male hormones in the ovary is the cause
irregular ovulation. Due to such irregularities, the patients may develop
barrenness. Other side effects of PCOS include diabetes and vascular diseases.
PCOS causes insulin resistance that makes the body to have high sugar levels
that may lead to diabetes. The patients of PCOS are always overweight, and
failure to timely treatment may cause heart failure due to blockage of blood
vessels.

Although PCOS is a common challenge among
women, its primary cause is still unknown. Some scientists have suggested that
the syndrome may arise from an excessive gain of weight (Azziz, et al., 2009).
The disease is mainly hereditary where women get it from paternal or maternal
lineage. The affected people need to continually do exercise to reduce their
body weights and bring their hormonal system back to normal. Regular exercise
reduces the body weight and relieves the patients from complications such as
obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and breathing problems. Medical experts
also suggest that exercise helps in reversing the hormonal imbalance back to
normal. Patients can as well seek treatment of reproductive systems to
normalize their menstrual cycle. Reproduction pills are available to bring the
periods back to normal and reverse the effects of PCOS. Insulin injection is
another treatment for PCOS as it helps in controlling the blood sugar levels.
Such procedures may prevent the patients from developing diabetes.

Physiology
of the Hormones

Hormones are chemicals that regulate the
functioning of various organs and tissues in the human body. Some of the
hormones associated with Polycystic Ovary syndrome are the sex hormones and
insulin. Sex hormones are chemicals that control the development and functions
of the sexual organs. The hormones monitor the progress of the reproductive
organs from birth through puberty to adult life. Girl’s breasts grow more
significant than those of boys due to the female sex hormones present in the
body. At puberty, LH and FSH stimulate the production of estrogen and
progesterone (Dewailly, et
al., 2011). The presence of these sex hormones in the female
body encourages the emergence of pubic hair, enlargement of hips and thighs and
the maturity of the womb, fallopian tube, and vagina. The sex hormones are
further responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle among women. The
production of estrogen and progesterone rises and falls throughout the
menstrual cycle to control the process. The ovary also produces some androgen
hormones in small amounts. The androgen is a male hormone responsible for
masculine features such as muscle growth, hair growth on the male faces and around
the body among other features. The production of androgen in the ovary is
however in small amounts to prevent it from instructing the development of
masculine traits on women. The hormone is responsible for the growth of muscles
and bones on women in readiness for pregnancy. PCOS, therefore, interferes with
the production of these sex hormones in women leading to several side effects.

Another hormone involved in the PCOS is
the insulin that is responsible for controlling the blood sugar levels. The hormones
get produced by the pancreas. The pancreas falls under the digestive system
located above the stomach. It has beta cells that produce insulin depending on
the blood sugar levels. The production can either increase or decrease
according to the demands of sugar in the body. Inhibiting the functioning of
the insulin makes the beta cells to excessively produce the hormones which are
quite dangerous since it can lead to diabetes infections. Due to the insulin
resistance, the body fails to recognize the presence of insulin in the
bloodstream and directs more production of it. People with limited amounts of
insulin in their bodies may require insulin injection to help the body reduce
the amount of sugar in the blood. PCOS patients may, therefore, need medication
to reverse the syndrome and enable the organization to utilize the hormone
appropriately (Moran,
et al 2010).

How
Hormonal System of the Females Maintain Homeostasis

The ovary is the female organ responsible
for the production of birth hormones. It produces estrogen, progesterone, LH,
and FSH. All these hormones play a role in the control of the menstrual cycle
in the adult females. They regulate the menstrual cycle to ensure regular
ovulation among women. The ovary also produces small amounts of androgen which
is a male hormone. Androgen produced by the ovary ensure that the body of women
develops some muscles and have strong bones (Fauser, et al., 2012). Both the female and
male hormones produced at the ovary are in the balance to ensure that the women
grow feminine features while the masculine elements do not appear. The
production of androgen is in limited levels that only trigger the development
of muscles and bones necessary for supporting the pregnancy among mothers. The
low levels of androgen are however not able to stimulate the male
characteristics such as hairy face and baldness.

Another hormone considered in the study of
Polycystic Ovary syndrome is the insulin that is responsible for controlling
blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate the blood sugar
levels from getting too high or too low. It helps the body in using sugar taken
from food. The pancreas has beta cells which produce insulin when the body has
an imbalance of sugar levels. The beta cells generate high amounts of insulin
when the sugar levels increase or decrease to help in the regulation of the
body sugar levels back to normal. The body may have excess sugar levels when it
fails to react to insulin. Such condition may lead to diabetes one which is a
condition related to high sugar levels in the blood (Moran, et al 2010).

Effects
of PCOS on Women Hormonal System

Polycystic ovary syndrome creates a
hormonal imbalance and its effect on sex hormone is quite severe. PCOS leads to
the excessive generation of the androgen making the women start developing some
masculine features. When the production of androgen exceeds the limits, women
will begin developing hairy body in the face, chest and even below the belly.
Women suffering from the syndrome may as well suffer from acne on their faces.
One severe effect of the hormonal imbalance is the irregular periods. Females
affected by the syndrome begin to experience irregular menstrual cycle where
they have fewer than usual. When it exists, the menstruation may be heavy and lasts
for many days. The lack of hormonal balance among female due to the effects of
PCOS may cause infertility (Fauser,
et al., 2012). Some female patients fail to be pregnant due to
irregular periods while others may just give birth. Many females have struggled
to give birth due to the infection as it affects their reproductive system by
altering the hormonal balance. The development of male features on the body of
the women suffering from the syndrome causes discomfort on the victims and may
lead to severe depressions. It is quite difficult for women to withstand acne,
baldness or even hairy body which make them look like men.

Beta cells in pancreas generate insulin
which regulates the blood sugar levels. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome interferes
with the functions of insulin as it makes the body to fail in detecting the
presence of insulin. The body may, therefore, have a high level of insulin in
blood as a result of the hormonal failure. The problem may allow the blood
sugar levels to rise to fatal levels. The insulin resistance created by PCOS is
dangerous to the health of women as it can lead to diabetes attack (Toulis, et al., 2009).
The failure of the blood to recognize the presence of insulin allows the body
to generate a high number of it and increase the sugar levels in the blood. Due
to the insulin resistance, most patients suffering from PCOS are prone to
diabetes attack if they fail to treat the disease timely. Apart from diabetes,
PCOS victims are at risk of being obese since it affects the eating habits of
the women. Patients suffering from the syndrome may eat excessive e amounts of
food which fatten their body. Excessive body weights may as well lead to
blockage of blood vessels. Hence, the victims may suffer from heart problems.
Prolonged sufferings from the disease may induce breathing difficulties noticed
by snoring during sleep. One of the signs of PCOS is a stoppage of breathing
during sleep which may be difficult for the patients to identify and only
sleeping partners can notice the problem.