Abstract This extended essay manages the Rwandan genocide amid the mid – 1900s when the Hutu larger part slaughtered the Tutsi minority. It embraces a chronicled investigation of the reasons for this slaughter, endeavoring to clarify how a situation where neighbors executed neighbors could emerge. All the more particularly, the examination manages the connection between the ethnic strains that prompt the genocide, looking at the inquiry: “How did ethnic pressures prompt genocide between the Hutus and Tutsis in Rwanda amid 1994?” The extent of the stretched out article is confined to the long haul reasons for the genocide, as the prompt causes are not researched. Additionally, the article does not go into the chronicled and social factors that caused such a substantial piece of the Hutu populace to really partake in the killings. Keeping in mind the end goal to look at the exploration question, auxiliary sources managing pre provincial, frontier and post pioneer Rwanda utilized. The extent of the stretched out exposition is confined to the long haul reasons for the genocide, as the prompt causes are not researched. Additionally, the exposition does not go into the recorded and social factors that caused such a substantial piece of the Hutu populace to really take an interest in the killings. Keeping in mind the end goal to look at the examination question, optional sources managing pre pilgrim, provincial and post pioneer Rwanda utilized. (232 words)IntroductionDuring 1994 in Rwanda, roughly 800,000 men, ladies, and kids were ruthlessly slaughtered inside 100 days. It is assessed that in four months, 1.75 million individuals or a fourth of the nation’s pre-war populace, had either kicked the bucket or fled the nation. The slaughter swelled into a Genocide that began on April 7, 1994, bringing about the demise of up to one million individuals. This astonishing occasion influenced predominantly farming, the fundamental control of the populace as common strife uplifted amidst the developing season. NGOs assessed that the general loss of gathering amid the time of the Genocide was as high as 60%. Rwanda usually alluded to as the place that is known for a thousand slopes, is populated by three ethnic gatherings. Rwanda, ” a small country with an overwhelmingly agricultural economy, consisted of about 85% of its population being Hutu and the other 15% was the Tutsi. Rwanda joined together with the League of Nations to mandate Belgium after World War 1 but they favored the Tutsis which created big tension between them resulting in violence even though Rwanda had not gained their independence as yet. The Belgian administration had the civilians wear identity cards so they can distinguish between the Hutus and Tutsis which also led to a diverse community. Because of this revolution that the Hutu started, it led to over 300,000 Tutsis fleeing the country making the country even smaller. During 1994, from April to July, the Hutu community murdered up to 800,000 people most of them being from the Tutsi minority. This mass killing resulted in it quickly spreading from Kigali to the rest of the country leading to over 800,000 people killed over the next three months. No one knows who should be blamed for this as yet because many people can be blamed but many people were killed or either fled to other places. The hutus fled Rwanda and went into refugee camps and went to other neighboring countries. This can be shown throughout the texts that were given to explain what the hutus/tutsis went through. The tutsi minority was favored in “terms of education and employment” where as the Hutus were neglected. Later on, children that were apart of the exile formed a rebel group, Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) which consisted of majority Tutsi community.Life before the Genocide Life in the early 1900s consisted of the Hutus being mainly agricultural laborers where as the Tutsis were landowners. The Rwandan society was founded during the 15th century and it was came to an agreement that it could have been modelled as a “smaller Bantu- state” which was already present before the Tutsi’s migrated into their society. The power was shared among both the Hutu’s and Tutsi’s and although the King was Tutsi his “spiritual advisors” were Hutus. During 1756-1765, the Rwanda Society did however go through a period of “centralisation of state power and reorganisation of a society” which changed the relationships drastically between Hutu and Tutsi. Before the genocide, they suffered with many bad relationshops. On October 1, 1990, RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) invaded Rwanda for their “democracy, good governance and the right of refugees displaces from earlier violence to return to Rwanda.” This was said to have started the Rwandan Civil War, where they had help from the Ugandan government who demanded to share power. The Rwandan Society was characterized by ethnic and political tensions that were shared throughout the entire population. The ecosystem that they lived in was a root cause for the political system. The areas where agriculture was sustainable, was all occupied by Hutu Kingdoms and it wasn’t accepted for them. As the Tutsi’s found more land, they migrated there causing a split in all of the lands and the population being scattered everywhere. This led to the Tutsi’s acquiring a great amount of land where they can use for their wars and to increase the resource base for their herds. During this civil war, “Paul Kagame” was the commander of the RPF but the president, Melchior Ndadaye was elected in June as the country’s first Hutu’s president. During the Colonial Era, the “Berlin Conference” assigned a territory to Germany which began a “policy of ruling through the Rwandan monarchy.” The Genocide The RPF invasion had a big part to do with the genocide. It is believed that when Habyarimana began negotiationg with the RPF is what led to the first signs of the genocide. There is no exact date but it is said to have been around 1992 where the army started to arm civilians with weapons such as “machetes” and they also started to train the Hutu youth with the combat and defense to threats that might come towards them. These skills and weapons were used differently for the hutus, where as they were used later on for the genocide and the leading up of it. The Rwanda Society also purchased “large numbers of grenades and munitions” that came from the late 1990s. A division grew between the newly recruits and the Presedential guards who were well trained and ready for any battles that came along their way. The Hutu society started their plans very small, with listing people who they saw as traitors and was soon going to kill. It is thought that Habyarimana’s name was on the list because they thought he betrayed them. They took this list very serious, to the radio stations that they listened too, “Radio Rwanda.” They believed that this radio station was favoring their opposition and they became liberal. This led them to search for a new radio station called “Radio Television Libre des Mille Collines” which broadcasted “racist propoganda, obscene jokes and music.” They became very popular throughout the Rwanda genocide but studies found that about 10% of the overall violence can be contriubuted to this radio station. The hutus took any way of importing weapons to them in order for them to be used for the genocide. They imported machetes, razor blades, saws and scissors along with other tools that was said to be used and required for agriculture. They set up a system where the tools were to be distributed around the country to the Hutus in the time of attack. On April 6, 1994 there was a airplane that carried both the President of Rwanda and the President of the Hutu society, Juvenal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira, which was shot leading it to go down and killing everyone on the plane including both presidents. Melchior Ndadaye was the President who represented the Hutus. He was believed to be assassinatated by an extremistt Tutsi army officers. This assassinations caused shock all around which reinforced the nation that the Tutsi’s were the enemies and they couldnt be trusted so they needed to go after them. Their presidents death angered them which led them to turning to a situation they always had in mind and worked hard to actively plan in. Now that their president was dead, the entire Hutu population was angry which led all of them to take part in this plan and carry out the killings of the Tutsis. They started to arm all of the civilians with the weapons they had before along with AK-47 guns. The genocide then began a few hours after Habyarimana’s death. They gathered all the civilians and announced the death and they blamed the RPF. After all th information was spread, the civilians were ordered to “begin their work” and to “spare no one” including infants and seniors. The killing spread to almost 6 provinces on April 7. Rumors were spread that the RPF killed the president and the orders were to kill all the Tutsis no matter what they pleaded. Difference from other Genocides This genocide was one of the biggest genocide ever. It was the same as they both were caused by culture diversity but the plans and approcahes they took were different for this genocide. During this genocide, rape was used as a number one “tool.” This was used to exhaust the opposing group, Tutsi minority. The radio station portrayed the Tutsi women as sexually seductive” in their propaganda towards the Hutus. Rape against the Tutsi women were committed by the civillians to the Presedential Guards to the Soldiers and anyone who was against them and although they wanted to harm only Tutsi’s, some of the Hutu women were raped and abused along with the Tutsi. The hutus who were usually raped hid a secret like being married to a Tutsi or hiding a Tutsi family. “Rape was a common weapon and was systematic” to a UN special Rapporteur Rene Degni-Segui. From sources, women were raped “about 5 times a day” and no one could help or it would lead to them being killed or rape also. Some women who couldnt bear to watch the women getting raped who farm a piece of land to take up their time. Showing sympathy for any of the Tutsis was not an option because in the back of their minds, the Tutsis is the one who killed their president and they had much respect for him. If you survived from the rape, you wouldnt live long because you would be infected with HIV because of the infected men who were “recruited by genocidaires.” They then continued to relase hundreds of patients who suffered from AIDS to make them into a “rape squad” so they can have a “slow, inexorable death” and also do this to their future Tutsi victims. Rape was not the only abuse they suffered from but also from “Sexual Mutilation” where they had mutilation of their vagina and breasts from machetes, knives, sharpened stticks, boiling water and acid. Men also suffered from sexual mutiliation, where their genitals were mutilited and displayed as “trophies in public.” During the genocide, the estimate of women raped was approximately 250,000 to 500,000 women. Another way this genocide was different was because they killed the population which had nothing to do with any of the problems that were faced. In the Rwanda Soceity, there was a 1% population of the ‘Twa’ or ‘Batwa’ or what the people called them the pygmy people. During the genocide, it is estimated that about 10,000 to 30,000 of their population was killed. They were reffered to as the forgotten victims as they werent included in anything and they had no say. They were falsely accused by radiostations of helping the RPF and saying they wanted to kill all of the Hutu fighters. There is not an exact number of how many people were killed during this chaotic time but it is said that approximately 1,071,000 were killed and 10% of those were Hutus. This is said to be the biggest and most chaotic genocide ever. The Aftermath After majority of the Tutsi’s were killed, the Tutsi Patrioti Front was able to end the killings and rescue six hundred of their troops and a peace treaty was signed with the United Nations. They started to make an effort in Rwanda which led to them sending peacekeeping forces to observe acts and they sent a UN Security Council which helped the people left in Rwanda. The genocide ended after the Tutsi’s won the civil war after claiming the capital of Kigall where the rumors werent spread to and no war was. After they won back their victory, over two million Hutus fled to refugee camps because of the fear that they had for the RPF groups that were left in the Rwandan Genocide. These camps had many diseases, cholera and dysentery, and were easily spread because of how crowded the camps were. They were originally set up for the UN refugees but many leaders of the genocide were Hutus fled there after Tutsi regained power in Rwanda. Conclusion In conclusion, it is shown that the Rwanda genocide was not mainly caused because of ethnic differences but of all the propaganda set forth and all of the events that took place. The information told by the radio stations was spread and told to everyone and it was untrue leading to tensions rising in the society. Violence was a huge tool during this genocide which caused many deaths and a very corrupt society where everyone was against each other. Although it is said all around that religion and ethnicity was an important contributing view of the Rwanda genocide, it is proven that it was not the only factor. Therefore, not one claim can be made and only those who lived during this genocide would be able to understand the tensions that were present and how it was all settled and overcome.