Abstract—Inductors, pertain to the concept of induction but with

Abstract—Inductors, including transformers, are part of the
most common practices in the field of electronics. From its discovery, existing
technologies have been revolutionized and led to the technological advancements
throughout the years. In this laboratory experiment, the students primarily aim
to determine the characteristics of both inductors and transformer through the
variations of their operating frequencies. The students will also determine the
essence of principles and laws in using inductors and transformers. The experiment
will be implemented by the use of laboratory equipment and testing devices in
line with the simulations using the LTSpice. Then, the students will create an
inductor in which they will eventually use in creating a transformer. Lastly,
the students will gather enough data, analyze, compare, and interpret the
characteristics pertaining to the laws and principles revolving around an
inductor and also a transformer.

                                                                                                                                                         
I.      
Introduction

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Inductors have been part of the most
common practices in the field of electronics. From its invention and discovery,
existing technologies have been revolutionized and contributed to the improvement
of such technologies throughout the years. From old inductor coils to the more
efficient inductors, inductors have been utilized extensively in electronics. Inductors
are also an important part of a transformer which has almost the same
operational principles of electromagnetic induction. A transformer is an electronic
component which uses the concepts pertaining to induction through the
conversion of electrical energy into another value. On the other hand, an
inductor is an electrical component which stores energy coming from a magnetic
field created by the passing of electric current. These two components both
exhibit the principles that pertain to the concept of induction but with
different approach and the way on how these components work are to be presented
after. In this laboratory experiment, the students are going to determine the
characteristics of inductors and transformers under certain frequencies. The
students are also going to determine the behavior of these components through
variations in other elements affecting them. Lastly, the principles and
concepts pertaining to induction will be exemplified and demonstrated
throughout the implementation of this laboratory experiment.

Basically, an inductor works when
electricity starts to flow into the coil which causes a magnetic field to form.
The more turns the coil is wound, the stronger the generated magnetic field
will be. The magnetic field produced by an inductor also increases if the
cross-sectional area of the inductor also increases.

Figure 1: Current and Magnetic Field in an Inductor

      Imagine
an AC current, which changes its direction periodically, flows inside the
inductor. And when current flows to the inductor, the generated magnetic field
causes the induced voltage to increase and this prevents further changes in the
level of current. This is because in an inductor, the current does not change
instantaneously.

Figure 2: Inductor Before
and After Sudden Changes in Current

The essence of induced voltage in the
inductor are still produced despite the change in the direction of current
flow. The direction of current is also reversed before overcoming the induced
voltage and this causes a no flow of current. On the other hand, if a DC
current enters an inductor, the level of current does not change which means
that there will be no induced voltage. This implies that an inductor allows DC
and disallows AC to flow through it. Additionally, inductors also preserve
current through the use of magnetic fields in storing energies and when AC
voltage enters the inductor, current starts to lag behind the voltage based on
the inductance and the frequency that relies on a phase angle.

Figure 3: Visualization of
How a Transformer Works

      A
transformer is made up of primary and secondary windings with core laminations
consist of strips. In between these strips, there are existing close gaps in
the cross-section part of the core. Because of the coil being connected to an
AC voltage, an electromotive force is induced in the transformer from the
alternating flux in one of the laminated cores. Faraday’s law of
electromagnetic induction is used in the transformer’s working principles. If
we are going to close the second coil circuit, the current will flow and a
magnetic transfer of electrical energy will occur from the first coil to the
second coil. Moreover, the part where the AC supply comes from is called the
primary winding and the part where the electrical energy came from is called
the secondary winding. Overall, a transformer performs an electric power
transfer from a single circuit to another without variations in frequency. And
this occurs in line with the law of electromagnetic induction particularly the
use of mutual induction.