Abstract of human civilization, people have moved to settle



This paper analyzes different
aspects of water resources. It will explain what water resources are and their
importance in every aspect of our lives. In addition, this paper will discuss
hydraulics and will take as example a river, Holta, founded in central Albania,
Gramsh where a new hydropower station is going to be built. We will see the
hydrological aspects of this station.

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The Earth.
The blue planet as it is called because of its ¾ portion of water and only ¼ of
soil. Water is one of the most important elements of life. Have you ever
wondered about the importance of the so known H2O, or the resources
that our planet has and how we use it?  “Water,
like religion and ideology, has the power to move millions of people. Since the
very birth of human civilization, people have moved to settle close to it.
People move when there is too little of it. People move when there is too much
of it. People journey down it. People write, sing and dance about it. People
fight over it. And all people, everywhere and every day, need it.”  (Mikhail Gorbachev, the Magazine of the US
Library of Congress, October-November 2000, p1)







are water resources?

resources are all origins of water that can be utilized in industrial,
agricultural, household, recreational and environmental activities. Only 3% of all
Earth’s water is fresh one that can be utilized for different purposes and
nearly 2/3 of this 3% is frozen. Fresh water is mainly founded
underground.  Water can be founded also
on the surface of the water, under the river flow, underground. Another good
source is frozen water or desalination.


Ø  By surface water we mean water
located in rivers, wetlands and lakes. Clean water is taken with precipitation
method where water flows into canals and all its waste fell down.                                                         

Ø  Beneath the visible flow of the
river is another flow which is called hyporheic zone, which creates an exchange
canal between surface water and groundwater from aquifers.

Ø  Groundwater is fresh water located
under the soil which flows through shallow aquifers.

Ø  Desalination is the process where
salt water taken from seas or oceans in converted into fresh water




Water laws
hint to the right of a user to use water from a water source. In crowded areas,
where water sources are limited they can generate conflicts.

1.       Water Rights based on ownership of
the land

2.       Community-based allocation of water

3.       Right to Clean Water

4.       The Right to Access and Physically
Occupy Water



supply system

            (Alket Kumaraku Lections)



1.       Pipes- intake of water from the

2.       Fittings- water treatment plants.

3.       Valves, non-return valves, water
meters, pressure reduction valves- transportation of water from source to home

4.       Pumps- water balancing tanks.

5.       Hydraulic structures- water supply
distribution network.





v  Drinkable water

v  Technological water

v  Non-drinking water (used for
fireworks, farming etc.)

supply system:

v  Gravity water supply system

v  Forced water supply system (with


v  Combined water supply system

v  Separated water supply system