Considering is somewhere between the Autonomy vs. Shame

Considering
Jasmine is a preschooler, this particular stage of her cognitive development is
important because this is the time when children begin to detail stories,
identify basic items such as shapes and colors, improve conversational skills
and become more social just to name a few. Keith’s advice to Jasmine’s parents
in regards to her cognitive development will depend on his personal beliefs and
which theorist he agrees with the most. If Keith is more opt to believe Piaget
then he would recommend that Jasmine’s parents allow her to roam and explore
naturally and that with their guidance she will either assimilate or
accommodate to new situations until she reaches her next stage of development.
If Keith was a believer in Erikson’s theory, he’d explain to her parents that
Jasmine is somewhere between the Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt and the
Initiative vs. Guilt stage of development. These are the stages where
“self-sufficiency and exploration are encouraged, new ways to initiate actions
are discovered, doubts about self, lack of independence and guilt from actions
and thoughts can occur (1)” thus advising her parents to “encourage exploration
and freedom within safe boundaries.” (1) so that Jasmine becomes an independent
person. If Keith were to use Skinner’s theories, he’d encourage Jasmine’s
parents to put her on a positive/negative reinforcement system. Since Jasmine
is pre-school aged this system could include “a reward chart where good
behavior is rewarded (i.e., given a sticker) to encourage positive behavior”
(3) from Jasmine and negative behavior results in some sort of punishment
(i.e., time out). Lastly, if Keith were to offer up advice that mirrored
Vygotsky’s theory he would encourage Jasmine’s parents to put her in a “play
enhanced social environment” (5) with her peers. Through culture, Vygotsky
believed children learn and develop skills that translate into “self-regulation
and relationships with others” throughout life. (3)

            Regardless
of the theory used, Jasmine’s family and society would play a crucial role in
her cognitive development because “the family provides the most significant
attachments as well as the care and stimulation required for children’s growth
and development.” (6) The interaction of children
with adults and peers is key for cognitive development as they set the tone for
what children deem acceptable and not acceptable. Environment also impacts
cognitive development as it can advance or hinder a child’s development in the
early stages of life. Consider a loving nurturing upper middle class family who
is able to provide structure, positivity and a decent home for their children.
Now consider a single parent family with less income, less parental structure
and possibly located in a violent environment. The child from the second family
may be at risk to get be exposed to certain harms that can impair his/her
ability to be social, solve problems or even impair their language. Studies
have shown that “children in the most
disadvantaged position in their societies are at the greatest risk of failing
to reach their developmental potential thus optimizing care for child 

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