Gait initial contact (or heel-strike), loading response, mid-stance, terminal

Gait cycle is a series of events in walking or running that is starts with one foot hits the ground (heel-strike) and ends with the same foot hits the ground again. Gait cycle has two phases: the weight bearing or stance phase and the non-weight bearing or swing phase. Each gait cycle starts with the heel-strike of the leading leg, goes through a swing phase then ends with the next heel strike of the same leg. In stance phase: the foot is on the ground. Starts with heel strike of leading leg and ends with toe off the same leg. It takes up about 40% of the gait cycle. It is subdivided into initial contact (or heel-strike), loading response, mid-stance, terminal stance and pre-swing.initial contact – or heel strike – occur when the heel of the leading leg hits the ground. Weight is accepted. Loading response: Following heel strike of the leading leg the body weight is being transmitted onto it. The knee and ankle joint absorbs shock, hip stabilises the new position. The foot moves from the heel to the toe making the entire foot in full contact with the ground (foot is flat). in mid-stance -The limb is fixed and weight is shifted onto this limb – single limb support – and the foot turns into stability mode supporting the opposite limb freely swinging forward till both ankles of the limbs are aligned. in terminal stance – single limb support – begins when the supporting heel raise off the ground and ends when the contralateral heel touches the ground. Weight moves ahead of the forefoot, the ankle starts to flex downward and the knee extends and the body is propelled forwards.Pre-swing: It starts when the contralateral heel touches the ground and ends when the ipsilateral limb is elevated. In Swing phase the foot/limb is off the ground and is moving (swinging) forward. This is the phase of limb advancement. It takes up about 40% of the gait cycle. It can be subdivided into Initial swing, Mid-swing and Terminal swing. Initial swing: toe off. It begins when the foot leaves the ground till full knee flexion occurs, the swinging limb is positioned directly under the body and directly opposite the stance limb. mid-swing: starts at the end of the initial swing and continues until the tibia passes beyond plumb (vertical position)Terminal (late) swing: it begins at the end of mid-swing and ends when the foot hits the ground. In this phase hip is flexes, the knee fully extends and the ankle dorsiflexes.