In high-intensity exercise and diet alone with adverse effects

 

In Competitive sports, doping
refers to the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic
competitors such as AAS (Anabolic Androgenic Steroids) and many more. Steroids
are the artificial synthetic derivatives which boost the muscle growth,
aggressiveness and a sense of well-being. These drugs have been known to be misused
by athletes since ancient times. Chronic use of these steroids has known to
cause serious diverse effects such as liver disorders, cardio-vascular
diseases, neuropsychiatric diseases. These were in continues use until when
steroids got banned because of their negative impact on sportspersons health
but also to promote fair play. Although the use of steroids in competitive
sports is banned but still the use of steroids by sportsmen has become a very
common habit, but they are not familiar with the ruinous effects which will
damage their life ahead.

Steroids and Their use:

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According to Gething, Fergal, Davies, &
Baker (2011) “Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have muscle-building properties
that result in improved physical performance, over and above that which can be
achieved through natural means. An evaluation of the scientific literature
outlines the benefits of use for athletes engaged in power-based sports as
improvements in reaction time (Ariel & Saville, 1972); both isometric and
isokinetic strength (Friedl, Dettori, Hannan, Patience, & Plymato, 1991)
and muscle power (Alén, Häkkinen, & Komi, 1984) have been documented following AAS
administration”.
Although in the Gethings et al.” s (2011) research article they could not find any evidence regarding the
benefits received by using steroids. These are widely used by athletes and sports
persons and an increasing trend of steroid use have also been seen in G1 adolescents.
“Striegel et al. 21 described that the most frequently reported reasons for
drug use were to achieve athletic success (86 %) and for financial gain (74 %)” stated by
Zabala and SanchezG2  (2013,
p. 398). These being the main reason for using steroidsG3 G4  Some
of the symptoms that Cummings et al., (2011) described in the research included
increase in body weight, increase gains in muscular strengths above and beyond
those obtained through high-intensity exercise and diet alone with adverse
effects on cardiovascular systems, reproduction systems, G5 liver,
and psychological status.  G6 G7 G8 G9 

Effects of Steroids On:

Body composition: Numerous
studies have been conducted on the effects of steroids on sportsmen and the
steroids user. For example, Hartgens and Kuipers, (2004) found different
effects on body composition such as changes in Bodyweight where an increase of
2-5 kg was noticed. Furthermore, Anabolic steroids were discovered to affect
the body lean mass, Muscle fibers. It also contributed the abnormal increase of
some musG10 cles whereas a decrease in others. Above all
(Hartgens & Kuipers, 2004) in G11 their study among 40% of the male subjects
reported the occurrence of acne, increased body hair and an increase in
aggressive behaviorG12 . Another adverse effect is the occurrence of gynecomastia
which is accompanied by Severe pain. Research by Arssinen and Seppala (2002) shoes
that “Anabolic steroids have been proved to
be aetiologic factors for some cancers. These agents have been documented as
risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)48 and
have also been associated with the development of soft tissue sarcomas”. Hepatic tumors, Prostate cancer
have also been believed to be a risk of consuming steroids.              G13 G14 

Cardiovascular system:

The use of androgenic anabolic steroids leads to
cardiovascular diseases G15 as noted
down by Hartgens and Kuipers (2004). The post-steroid effects include heart
failures, development of cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, disturbance of G16 G17 hemostatic system and at worse also lead to sudden death.
Furthermore, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and its subtractions have
also been identified as one of the risk factors. The excessive use of steroids
can also
cause liver function disorders. From the shown studies by Hartgens &
Kuipers (2004), it has been found that Anabolic steroid intake can also disrupt
enzyme productions in human bodies.G18 G19  Parssinen and Seppala (2002) provide a good
example where a weightlifter who took steroids had a cardiac dilation, Nerve
dilatation in left leg, Dilation of heart. 
G20 G21 G22 G23 G24 

 

Psyche and Behavior:

Behavior is one of the other aspects of human
life which are intruded by anabolic steroid use. Not only does steroid abuse interferes
with the mind but also has G25 psychic effects. The researchers Hartgeins & Kuipers
(2004), G26 G27 in their studies found that Androgenic anabolic steroids may
exert profound effects on mental state and behavior, although only a small
number of abusers may be affected. Increased aggression and hostility seem the
most prominent alterations observed, although this condition may become serious
in only a limited number of users. Mood disturbances may occur, the extent of
which is dose-dependent. G28 AAS
users often expose a narcissistic personality and are often dissatisfied with
their own body. Pope and Katz248 introduced the concept that subjects with
these characteristics suffer from the Adonis complex, referring to a
mythological character with the same personality traits. (p.543)G29 G30 

In the worst cases, steroids can affect the G31 muscular-skeletal
system making bones weak and causing bone fractures. Adding on it can also
cause tendon pathology and rhabdomyolysis, dermatological effects such as the
occurrence of acne vulgaris. Steroids have known to affect every user in G32 G33 some
different ways. For example, from the studies of Woolf, Rimal and Sripad (2014) found that
the steroids have negative physiological effects which include cardiac
hypertrophy and psychological difficulties such as aggression, drug dependency,
depression and suicide amongst high school athletes. G34 Woolf
et al. (2014) G35 

Preventive measures:

Government measures

The world anti-doping agency(WADA) is responsible for the use of
all prohibited substances and methods, it is also responsible for making
guidelines for athlete’s testing’s and establishing standards as per
Cadwallader and Murray (2015). This authority (World anti-doping agency) Introduced
the world anti-doping code which has all the guidelines and rules and
regulations regarding the substances that have been banned and the method of
their detection. Steroids are one of the substances that are covered under
World anti-doping code and banned from being used in sports. Penalties have
been set for anyone who is found to be under the influence of such drugs in competitions. Zabala
and SanchezG36  (2013, p. 403) noted “According to Petro´czi and
Aidman 8, increased knowledge of the risk factors and a better understanding
of the causes of doping behavior are among the priorities of WADA”G37 

Food Supplements: The WADA has also set out certain
regulations regarding the food supplement producing companies. In which the
companies should not contaminate the supplements with prohibited products and
drugs (Cadwallader and Murray, 2015, p.).

Anti-Doping techniques:

Direct
techniques have been found out to prevent doping/ use of prohibited drugs. Some
of the methods of detecting drugs or steroids are thru urine or blood which is
obtained from an athlete and is sent to forensic labs for detection
(Pottgiesser and Schumacher, 2013)G38 . Another
technique is ESA Screening and MAIIA (Membrane-assisted isoform immunoassay)
which combines chromatography technology. In the research of Pottgiesser and
Schumacher (2013 p. 9629) “greatest advances have been
made in the development of HBOCs which, in contrast to other approaches such as
perfluorocarbons, rely on hemoglobin molecules of animal origin or from genetic
engineering 36. An HBOC (Oxyglobin®) was approved for veterinary use in
certain countries 15 years ago”G39 G40 

Education and Prevention

Zabala and Sanchez (2013, p.404)
state that “G41 According to Peters et al. 53 and
Lentillon-Kaestner et al. 28, preventive measures are needed to establish and
fortify attitudes towards doping at an early stage of an athlete’s career. Elite
athletes are members of a group that includes family, coaches, support staff
and other athletes, and these relationships may encourage or minimize the behavior
towards the use of banned substances”. Education of sports and its features
and substances like steroids and drugs at school level is an important step for
prevention of doping. The steps included school seminars and information tours.
 Wippert and Fließer (2016 p. 2). In their research mentions “Both measures
aimed to develop knowledge, critical awareness, and assertiveness, and to
strengthen the young athletes’ character to prevent doping. The Information
Tour included a presentation from an anti-doping official, a personal narrative
from an elite athlete, and a doping control film”. These are good government
and school initiatives to educate children at 
a younger age so that they know how harmful these substances can be and
learn fair play in sports.G42  There is a need to teach how to resist pressure
to get caught in doping in unfavorable conditions.G43 

 

 

Future Implications:

According to Zabala and Sanchez
(2013, G44 p.404) ”Controlling doping only by
tests is not sufficient; a profound change in the attitudes, which should be
monitored repeatedly, is needed “Apart from the application of the ABP
hematological passport, other strategies were pursued to narrow the incidence
of blood doping and offer a broader spectrum of detection methods. This is
especially true for the detection of otherwise untraceable autologous blood
transfusions” as said by Pottgiesser
and Schumacher (2013, p.9634). Some of the techniques are phthalates, Microprint,
Foreign erythrocytes. Also, another good way to discourage doping would be to
provide funds to make better technology and help researchers detect doping in
games. Zabala
and Sanchez (2013, p.404) Suggest that “G45 We encourage institutions (e.g. WADA, national
anti-doping agencies, national/international sports federations, regional
governments in sport, and other national/regional sports foundations or sports
institutes) to invest more money by balancing the costs of control and
prevention G46 G47 G48 programs. Sometimes, institutions develop and
start prevention or educational programs without suitable financial investment.
Better controls are clearly needed, as are more effective educational programs
that do not necessarily involve greater financial investments”G49 G50 

 

Internet:

The Internet is the best source of information.
Especially at early ages and high-school G51 G52 kid’s internet is very famous. Internet platform
for online courses related to doping should be welcomed (Zabla
and Sanchez, 2013, p.404)G53 

 

Sports is not all about winning, it
includes making healthier choices to have a healthy and balanced life. Sports
are meant to entertain, to G54 spend some time out of the daily
routine with oneself. Use of steroids and other drugs just to win competitions is
not what it really means. It is supposed to be an achievement with genuine hard
work and winning with one’s own potential and without the use of any unfair
means. The use of steroids and other drugs should be banned and not promoted.
The more fair game should be promoted, the more measures should be taken to
educate sportsmen about the dangerous effects of using steroids and drugs and
what would be the consequences. Governments should promote games and spend more
money on anti-sopping techniques and education about sports at school levels.
So that the young generatG55 G56 ion knows all about it and does not
think about doping. All the consequences of doping have been supported with
lots of research shown in this research essay, and hence doping in sports should
be discouraged.G57 G58 G59 

 

Reference

 

Cadwallader, A. B., & Murray,
B. (2015). Performance-Enhancing Drugs I: Understanding the Basics of Testing
for Banned Substances. International Journal of Sports
Nutrition & Exercise MetabolismG60 , 25(4), 396-404. doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2014-0185

 

Gething, A. D., Grace, F. M.,
Davies, B., & Baker, J. S. (2011). Effects of Long-Term Anabolic Androgenic
Steroid Administration on Respiratory Function. Research
In Sports Medicine, 19(4), 231-244.
doi:10.1080/15438627.2011.608034

 

Hartgens,
F., & Kuipers, H. (2004). Effects of Androgenic-Anabolic Steroids in
Athletes. Sports Medicine, 34(8), 513-554.

 

 

Parssinen, M., & Seppala, T.
(2002). Steroid Use and Long-Term Health Risks in Former Athletes. Sports Medicine, 32(2), 83-94. 

 

 

 

Pottgiesser, T., & Schumacher, Y. O. (2013). Current
strategies of blood doping detection. Analytical & Bioanalytical
Chemistry, 405(30), 9625-9639.
doi:10.1007/s00216-013-7270-x

 

 

Wippert, P., & Fließer, M. (2016). National doping
prevention guidelines: Intent, efficacy and lessons learned – A 4-year
evaluation. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention &
Policy, 111-7.
doi:10.1186/s13011-016-0079-9

 

Woolf, J., Rimal, R. N., &
Sripad, P. (2014). Understanding the Influence of Proximal Networks on High
School Athletes’ Intentions to Use Androgenic Anabolic Steroids. Journal
of Sport Management, 28(1), 8-20.
doi:10.1123/jsm.2013-0046

 

 

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