Light appear in our
daily life. Light is affected by many factors whist it also affects living
style. Light can affects our sleeping style and work hours, our alertness and
health. Some people think that lighting is just as simple as bright and shine. In
reality, lighting is so important in our daily life, affecting our eyes, level
of focusing to something and also our sleeping quality.
Light reveals colours
and three-dimensional form, while directional plays of light expose the texture
of surfaces and materials. These elements are so integral to the appreciation
of space that without the carefully considered and interior design, application
of light can never be truly great.
Light has the power to
influence the atmosphere and the mood of space. The shadows, patterns and
colours can affect the users by feeling alert or relaxation; uneasy and cold;
comfortable and warm. Light and colour can be used to make users feel
stimulated. Skilful and professionally use of light allows us to improve
interior designs with the sensation and emotions that designers wanted users to
About this book
This book is an introduction of lighting design affecting a
space, from interior to architecture. Overall this book discussing the
functionality of the light, from natural light to artificial light. For example, the Pantheon lighting affect the
shadow of the interior, allows a single patch of sunlight to trace its apparent
daily movement across the interior walls of the building. Some work about lighting
design is analysed in detail to explore some fundamental principles of this
This book is seperated into parts. The first part, which is
principle of light. It explains the difference between natural lighting, day
lighting and artificial lighting. The second part, discuss about the spaces of
light, lighting in architecture and light surfaces. It then discuss about the human
factors affect to lighting: sensing light and also the psychology factor affect
the space of light.
CHAPTER 1: PRINCIPLE OF LIGHTING
WHAT IS LIGHT?
Both physical and emotional reaction from living
things is from light. Living things respond to light. What is light? Light is
so abstract and also complicated. Philosophical and scientific enquiry is a
subject by natural of light for centuries. Man still trying to identify and
recognise light since the time before physics and maths.
Light is an energy, that obeys physical laws that
apply to energy, including the laws of thermodynamics. Light can be produced
with heat, that object can get warm and hot by lights. Chemical energy can be
produced by light. Besides, visible light also can be produced by the reaction
and transformation of other kinds of electromagnetic energy, such as microwaves
Winchip, S. (2005) Technically
light is a form of energy that is part of the electromagnetic spectrum visible
to the human eye. The spectrum also includes cosmic rays, microwaves, gamma
rays, radar, radio waves, ultraviolet, and X-rays. Based upon Isaac Newton’s
(1642-1727) prism experiments, the human eye is able to see light in the red
(700-650 nanometers) to violet (440-390 nanometers) wavelengths. One billion
nanometers equal to one meter (10-9 m). Light
is an outstanding element that is exciting, magical and mysterious.
Visible light is a small part of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation,
which includes X-rays, microwaves and radio waves.
HISTORY OF LIGHTING
historical of lighting starts with an examination of the early society and how
they arranged their activity around the accessibility of a natural source.
Natural light is the direct lighting from the sun, which is sunlight, the stars
and the moon. Indirect natural light is the reflections from the building,
landscape and also from clouds. Most human organised activity in the day time
when they relied on the natural daylighting. Romans normally designed structure
that would allow day light to enter in the interiors. (see Figure 1.1). The
Greeks focused in the understanding of using the daylighting to construct the
outdoor theatre (see Figure 1.2).
activities and programmes essentially ended at sunset when the society starts
depending the natural lighting only, except during a full moon. They would
start conducting an activity during a full moon when the activity required
natural daylighting in the evening hours.
Figure 1.2.1 The oculus in the dome of the Pantheon, in
Rome, Italy, maximizes direct and indirect sunlight entering the interior.
1.2.2 The outdoor Greek amphitheatre was designed to collect sunlight, so that
they don’t need to use artificial lighting.
1.3 NATURAL AND DAY LIGHTING
light and day light is the same. Day lighting is the practical of the windows place or other
openings and reflective surfaces so that the
day time natural light provides effective
internal lighting. Gary G (2003) Day lighting
has variable characteristic. The daylight colour changes with the time of day,
the clarity of the atmosphere, and the interior reflection of the object
surrounded. The time of the day, year and latitude of the site affect the
intensity of the sun. The luminance of the sky depends on whether the light is
coming from an overcast sky, from clear sky only, or from a clear sky and
direct sunlight. Malcolm I (2012) The natural world contains several sources of
light that have not been created by humans, such as fire, lightning and even
bioluminescence from deep-sea creatures and fireflies.
There are two types of
daylight; sunlight and skylight. Sunlight is produced by the sun and straight
to the target; skylight is the diffuse reflection of light from particles in
Winchip, S. (2005) Day lighting is not only
essential to life but it is also critical to the psychological and biological
well-being of people. From an architectural perspectives, daylight enters an
interior through apertures that include windows and skylights. Windows is always appreciated by everyone in
the interior spaces. Day lighting is considered the most accurate colour to
determined. To obtain the most accurate colour, people will place the object
under the daylight, or near the window.
Sunlight is an incredible
source in our planet, it is so important that without sunlight, there would be
no life. The light of the sun is the main natural light source either direct or
indirect. Sunlight is normally not important and also impractical source for
interiors unless it is shielded. Sunlight always causes excessive luminance
differences that result in discomfort and weak visibility. Sunlight is a part
of electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared,
ultraviolet light and visible.
Skylight is a useful source
without shielding. Gary G (2003) Although special building configurations or
controls are necessary to make skylight acceptable for horizontal tasks at the
work plane or displaying art, it is used with less control to light noncritical
seeing areas such as corridors, stairwells, cafeterias, and seating areas.
Direction of Natural Light
Natural light normally
appears at the highest point, the mixture and combination of direct sunlight
and diffused sky light produces a very strong straight down direction to
natural light. Hence, the reflection of the light towards us affects so that we
can see green plants or rocky hills in our surroundings.
Figure 1.3.1 Above shows
that the deeply shaded area, the norm is the brightest part of a view to be
Figure 1.3.2 Although a
completely overcast sky with total cloud cover can look as though it is
completely uniform, there can be significant variation.
1.4 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
Lighting In 1878, Joseph Swan1 effectively exhibited the main incandescent
light, while its light darkened within minutes, it framed the premise of
counterfeit lighting as we probably aware it. The developments of Swan and
Edison3 changed the lighting of public and private structures. Until the 1700s,
there seemed little advancement in light innovation; woods, fats and oils were
using quite often during the Greek and Roman civilisations, which stayed well
known for over a thousand years. Like the advancement of the window, artificial
lighting turned into a type of expression; permitting experimentation of
material, scale and colour. Artificial lighting has progressed significantly
since its origination in 1878, lighting have progressed in productivity and form,
especially development by the introducing of LED4 lighting in the 1960s. LED
lighting has significantly adjusted our comprehension of artificial lighting.
Vast combine of colour, incorporation conceivable outcomes and its
environmental statistics have made it desirable to conventional light bulbs.
CHAPTER 2: LIGHT SPACES
LIGHTING FOR PEOPLE
lighting is all about human, but frequently
appear to be optional to what is cheap or simple to accomplish. However, lighting
that is appropriately planned because of clients ought to be practical.
lighting is a specific region of lighting design that requires careful examination
of the applicable codes and principles to guarantee compliance. In an emergency
of the building or space where the power has failed, battery-backed lighting is
designed to turn on itself to make sure there is a suitable brightness of light
to allow safe exit. Safety and comfort somehow seems to be not connected to
each other by looking at the emergency lighting situation. A person will feels
not safe when there is lighting that installed makes user feels uncomfortable,
perhaps by contrast or too much glare.
2.1.1 The emergency lighting is installed in the public area is powered by
batteries or by an independent power supply to make sure that the interior
space are not straight jump into a completely dark room when the power failure
Lighting forms the basis of most lighting standards.Regularly undertaking
lighting alludes to expanding illuminance to better achieve a particular activity.
In any case, the illuminance level isn’t the main factor overseeing
perceivability. Contrast is also important, and an inadequately situated light
source may cause contrast reduction, cause about loss of perceivability. The
most important motivation behind task lighting in the workplace isn’t increasing
illuminance, however enhancing contrast. General lighting can be cut down because
task lighting provides concentration light where required. A perfect task
lighting creates a good mixture and combination of intensity and direction that
suits a specific activity, but other ways allows private control provides the
best user experience. A sense of controlling is important in working
environment fulfilment surveys, and it is simple but difficult to supply this
locally controllable luminaires.
spaces are depressing and stressed in many building. They are fundamental for
moving individuals around without aggravating their neighbours, but they are seldom
inspiring or even cozy spaces. Their standard place in the centre of a building
manages little access to day light or perspectives to the outside. As they are
regularly observed as essentially an auxiliary to the ‘main’ spaces, they
rarely get more than the minimum consideration when comes to lighting.
2.1.2 The lighting orientation provides patterns in this corridor, people are
likely feel most cozy and comfortable going towards the brighter space.
LIGHTING FOR ARCHITECTURE
The suitable lighting for users of a building as the
best lighting, lighting focused on the surface of the material. Without
controlled light to enlighten the surfaces that make up the manufactured
condition, we cannot start to feel that we comprehend our environment.
Ambient lighting exists in every single lit surroundings.
As designers, we depend on reflections from lit surfaces to illuminate any scope
that are not straight forwardly lit by luminaires. The inter-reflection of ambient
light smooths out the contrast amongst direct and indirect illumination and ambient
light can smoothen the shadows. Controlling it is an essential component in any
project, however sometimes we may utilize indirect or ambient lighting as the
chief methods for illumination. This can be particularly valuable for massive volumes.
Everyone loves shiny objects. Human eyes is
naturally drawn to the shiny and bright objects in our visual scope. There is
no specify reason that why everyone may be so, but it is certainly correct that
brightly lit shapes, with perfect levels of contrast, it is easy to determined
that ones that are darken lit, with shadow-free illumination. It could be as easy
as that- a scene can be understood more rapidly if we inspect the brightest scope
first. Whatever the reason, the effect is true and it accidentally creates the
feeling that bright equality important.
Figure 2.2.1 This status is located in Notre-Dame,
Paris. The spotlight shine directly to the statue to embrace the three
dimensional modelling of the figure, to increase the visual important.
3: HUMAN FACTORS
It is so important
to understand the physics, physiology
and psychology of how human sense light, process it and experience it. This
chapter explores about the respond to light, ways to adapt to strength and
changes in light levels, and how vision works. Uniformly important are the psychological aspects of lighting including
cultural preferences and mood.
3.1 SENSING LIGHT
The human body has
numerous methods for understanding its condition. It has a huge number of
particular frameworks composed to be sensitive to both inside and outside
changes. Sound and light are two sort of stimulus that the body is intended to
react to. They are external stimuli and are transmitted through the surrounding
Waves can be
describe as the length between wave peaks, which is the wavelength, or
frequency, the amount of wave peaks that pass through certain period of time.
Both frequency and wavelength are describing the similar information with a
changes in light levels
There are many
times when we encounters speedy changes in the general light level of our
surroundings. When we enters the dark and dim room from an outdoor space may
affect our eye suffering from interpreting the interior space caused by huge
drop in relatives light levels. Whereas when we moves into a bright space from
a dark room or night scene, the eye would suffers again with the change in
Figure 3.1 The
Optic nerve reception do not have a simple 1:1 relationship between the
strength of the stimulus and frequency of firing. Instead, the rate of
terminating has a roughly logarithmic association with the stimulus. It will
take a ten times increment in stimulus brightness to create twice the same
number of signs. (Illustration adapted from Gregory, Eye and Brain: The
Psychology of Seeing.)
The psychology of
light and colour is a fascinating subject for those who are interested in
light, but this is a topic that requires an article or book itself. Light and
colours able to produce strong feelings and such a response is not something
that we expected it to be happen accidentally; we expected it to be happened
actively in control of the emotional qualities of our lighting designs.
Wapner and Demick
(2002) indicate that the person-in-environment system includes and individual’s
psychological well-being as well as interpersonal attributes of the
environment. Lighting research has focused on the effects of illumination on
these factors. Although human beings have many ways of sensing their
surroundings, for examples hear, touch, temperature, taste and smell, it is the
sense of sight that dominates both our understanding of our world and our
descriptions on it.
affect everyone emotions. For examples, a person will feel depressed and sad
when they are in a dark and gloomy day. In contrast, a person can feel positive
and energetic in a bright and sunny day. The lighting patterns in a space also
able to affect a person mood. Identical lighting pattern in the same interior
space are viewed as boring and flat. Non identical lighting at low levels is
often specified to meet the restorative needs of people who are easily exciting
or dealing with depression and stress. Generally, people more likely to stay in
the space longer when lighting improves their looks. Therefore, people more
likely to be engage in more social interaction when they aware that lighting
improves their physical features.
Stimulation is a
psychological need that can be met by appropriate lighting. It is a factor in
attracting attention to objects or areas in a space. To attract the attention
of an object, you can create contrast and specifying the best angle. An
illumination level that is the same for the surrounding area and the accent
object will not effectively pay attention to the item. High stimulation able to
makes a people feel anxiety and depressed. Excessive stimulation from lighting
able to derived from flickering, noise, unnatural light patterns, glare and
colour distortions. All the conditions can makes a person feel unsafe, impatient
and uncomfortable. A person can also feel stressed and depressed when they are
in the dark room. Besides, a space that is unfamiliar to them or in the
emergency situation will makes a person feel nervous too.
CHAPTER 4: CASE STUDY
The Pantheon is a church, used to be
a Roman Temple located in Rome, Italy. The emperor Hadrian completely built the
pantheon and might dedicated about 126AD. The Pantheon is round and circular
with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns under a pediment. There is a
central opening to the sky, which is oculus, and also a vestibule connected to
the porch under the dome. The Pantheon’s dome still the universe’s largest
unreinforced concrete dome after around two thousand years after it was constructed.
The diameter of the interior circle are the same as the height to the oculus.
4.1.1 shows the exterior of The Pantheon, located in Rome.
4.1.2 and Figure 4.1.3 The Pantheon- Interior. The oculus allow day lighting to
enters the space and produce brightness in a dark space.
The Chapel of St Ignatius at Seattle University
Steven Holl built the Chapel of St Ignatius at Seattle University, with the
concept ‘A Gathering of Different Light’. During the day each category of the
Chapel of St. Ignatius will shine with coloured light by two different sources.
Light bounced off colour fields painted on the back of suspended astounds makes
a halo of light on the chapel walls, while light go through coloured glass
lenses in the outside windows and openings in the obstacle commit onto the
church wall and the flooring. Interior space lighting will make a comparable
effect during the evening, changing the house of prayer into a reference point
of multicoloured light transmitting outward to the grounds and city.
4.2.1 The Chapel of St Ignatius at Seattle University- Exterior.
Chapel of St Ignatius at Seattle University- Interior.
Taoyuan International Airport, Taiwan
Taoyuan International Airport is located at Taiwan. It has a very symbolic
concept in the airport which is the roof glazing. The full piece of room
structure s glazed. The quantity of the glass could have shown the true
problems of overheating and dazzle from direct sunlight. The roof glazing
received the blackness of the sky at night. Lighting is constructed and install
to overcome this effect.
4.3.1 The arrival hall of Taoyuan International Airport in Taiwan.
4.3.2 The exterior of Taoyuan International Airport in Taiwan.
Church of the Light
of the Light is located at Ibraki, Osaka, Japan. It is built in 1989 and is
constructed by 3 structures. These 3 structure is made up of concrete cube with
the dimension 5.9m W x 17.7m L
x 5.9m H. Church of the light has a significant cross in the structure, which
is the light cross is created by a cross shaped openings. This allows sunlight
to enters and produce the cross patterns. Church of light also have the
dramatic contrast between the light and the concrete. The interior of the
chapel is defined by lights, the heavy contrast between solid and light. In the
Church of the light, the light enters from a cross cut in the concrete wall,
which extended horizontally from wall to wall, and also vertically from the
ceiling to the floor. It align nicely together with the joints and connection
in the concrete.
4.4.1 The cross light allows day lighting to enter the interior.
4.4.2 The natural light allow enough lighting to light up the interior by the
glass panel and the openings of cross
4.4.3 The exterior of Church of the light by Tadao Ando.
try to anticipate the close or far off future for lighting design would be
indiscretion, as technology advancements can change rapidly. In any case, there
are some certain patterns that will characterize the heading that lighting is
probably going to take. Strikingly, it isn’t just the presence of new intervention
that is driving change, yet the monetary and ecological to lower down energy consumption.