Introduction concept of International Law governing state alone changed

Introduction
to International Law by Ms. Nicole J. Dulude

The
most markable achievement of the United Nation was the development of International
Law which moved into a new dimension not only to protect “states’ rights but
also individuals’ personal rights.” The concept of International Law governing
state alone changed and resulted in the establishment of International Military
Tribunal at Nuremberg for charges against the Nazis for crimes against war, peace
and humanity. The same in the Far East was known as Tokyo war Crimes Trial. The
UN propounded four goals with 192 member state – to maintain international
peace and security, develop friendly relations, achieve cooperation and
harmonize the actions of nations. Despite their disparities, each member state
carries one vote in the UN General Assembly. The Anti- Personnel Mine ban
convention or the Ottawa Treaty is an instrument of International Law. 158
countries have signed the treaty while 37 states including countries like US,
India, Russia and China are not party to the convention. Diana, The Princess of
Wales and Former Canadian foreign affairs minister Lloyd Axworthy who also
sponsored the treaty and nominee for Nobel Peace Prize (1997) created public
interest in the banning of antipersonnel mines.

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                 Since International Law is a
network of treaties and agreement and application of treaty to certain dispute
was vague, in 1945 The International Court of Justice was formed which served
as the Principal Judicial organ of the UN. In the end of World War II and cold
war, treaties for controlling and limiting nuclear weapons emerged. But by the
end of 2002, with the agreement between the US and Russia nuclear warheads
reduced. In 1948 The Universal Declaration on Human Rights was adopted by the
UN due to Nuremberg Trials which was held for bringing Nazi war criminals to
Justice. . International law has turned its dimensions to focus on terrorism
and crimes where conventions against torture and Genocide applies in times of
war and peace while conventions against Geneva applies only in times of armed conflicts.
When looked back, Saddam Hussein was charged under Genocide trials by the Iraq
court. The UN has aided nations to get equal legal status whilst it still faces
enforcement problems for some of its programs. But with growing globalization
the need for uniform law continues.