A famous reputed school is facing a problem with decreasing
students’ performance which has a huge impact on the reputation of the school
in an unfavorable way. A continuous improvement plan should be implemented in
order to identify the root causes of this problem, find out solutions to
reverse the situation and to always maintain a gradual improvement in ongoing
teaching and learning process.
the cause of the problem
The main problems of the school are that the grades of the students
are decreasing and poor record on student attendance. Another problem is that
the evaluation of the performance of the teachers are based on the feedback
from students which the school administration is not sure about whether to rely
on it or not 1.
A common method to analyze the reason for these problems is Root
Cause Analysis 2. It identifies where the problem originated by answering
some questions such as, what happened, why it happened and what can be done to
prevent from it happening again.
For instance the reason for the failure in students grades my
cause due to poor attendance. And by analyzing the reasons for why a student
not attending the class regularly will help to bring out solutions to the
students personal problem. Hence, the ability to make a student focus more on
learning will increase.
The Root Cause Analysis mainly believe that an action in a
particular place will have an impact on another action. By tracking these
actions the root cause of the problems can be identified. For this, firstly the
school must have a proper attendance record and late comer record. If a student
continuously takes leaves or comes late to school the respective class teacher
should have a conversation with that particular student to find out the reason.
Other than scolding and punishing the students it is better if the teachers
find out the problem and inform the school administration. Therefore, they can
confirm each student attend the class regularly for continuous improvement.
The 7 basic Quality Control tools are cause and effect diagram,
check sheet, control charts, histogram, pareto chart, scatter diagram and
stratification or flowchart 3.
Cause and effect diagram is used to determine the possible root
causes of the problems. A fish diagram is drawn where the head of the fish is
pointed to the right side. This head represents the problem and the each bone
of the fish represents the major cause of the event. Smaller branch bones can
be drawn to represent the possible small causes related to the main cause.
Check sheets are some kind of forms used for data collection.
These special type of forms has benefits of making the data collection process
easier. It makes the data collection quick and accurate and at the end it has
the ability to produce a quick summary of the collected data. As a result this
makes the data analyzing process quick and easier. The form of this check sheet
depends on the type of the problems. And in a form of easy to understand.
Control charts are also known as process behavior charts. They are
graphs where the horizontal dimension represents the value or performance and
the vertical dimension represents when or where the values taken or the
performance has been noted. Control charts are helpful in analyzing the
increasing and reducing behavior of a process or a performance of a person. And
then using the results it can be determined whether the person or process is in
control. It can be determined by setting a threshold value, usually a flat line
or using two flat lines indicating the upper and the lower bound. Hence by
keeping the performance in-between the lower and upper bounds the goal can be
A histogram is used to graphically show the frequency distribution
or analyze each values in order to check how often it occurs. It allows to
obtain the clear view of the spread or shape of the data set and how it changes
over time. Histogram is normally used for a large set of data. It quickly
illustrates the meaning behind the data. The results are used to forecast
future behavior and the actions are made accordingly. By continuously checking
the spread of the data set we can come to an idea whether the current performance
will meet the goals and objectives. It can be done by setting limits in the
Pareto chart indicates that eighty percent of the problems come
from twenty percent of the causes. This is very helpful to analyze where the
improvement can be made. It displays which are the problems should be mainly
focused on out of all the problems. Hence Pareto analysis mainly targets on
that eighty percent of the problem which is trivial so that there can be a
great potential for an improvement.
Scatter diagrams are mainly used to identify the root causes of
the problems. It helps to check the relationship with each different variables
through graphs. Where the horizontal axis represents the independent variables
and the vertical axis represents the dependent variable. A threshold line or
trend line can be drawn to check the relationship between variables. It can be
lines or curves. When the data points are pointed on the graph, more the points
are closer to the trend line or curve stronger the relationship is, and the
change in independent variable will have a significant impact on the dependent
Stratification also known as flow chart is a type of organizing
the data. It separates the data obtained from different situations and sources
in a proper form so that a pattern can be seen for analyzing purposes.
continuous improvement plan and a detailed implementation plan for David and
Continuous improvement plan
Detailed Implementation plan
Introduction of continuous improvement plan
and ensuring the infrastructure
Directors of each division will provide strong
leadership in implementing the Continuous Improvement Plan.
Creating a leadership committee
Shared decision making – Decision making in
client D School is shared among leader community
Ensure school Environment – leadership
committee will ensure an equitable, respectful, and supportive environment that
if focused on promoting high achievement expectations for all students.
Introduce new evaluation system
Introduce evaluation system for each division
Leadership team in each division will
introduce new evaluation system after studying and clear observation of current
Strengthen Instruction for Students
Technology Integration – introduce new
teaching methodologies with integration of technology
Practical teaching – introduce teaching
methodologies which involves more practical
Professional development for teachers– provide
professional development for teachers by subject specialists
Introduce teaching methods for Struggling
Provide structured, scientifically-research
based programs for struggling students
Identify, introduce and execute suitable
teaching framework for the school
Identify struggling students and make
individual classrooms and grade levels and introduce appropriate student
Introduce more IQ and Math program
Data Driven Decision Making
Use data driven techniques to identify
progress of students and teachers skill level
Utilize ongoing formal and informal
assessments to determine individual student achievement and to drive
Develop and strengthen collaborative teams to
analyze data to make informed instructional decisions and support group lesson
Ensure effective utilization of all available
resources and to improve both student attendance and achievement.
Improving the attendance- with introducing
more parent notification methods
Encourage sports with providing well equipped
While looking at the favorable outcomes there are number of issues
related to the process of implementing Continuous improvement methods.
Mainly the teachers have to beware of all the techniques and how
it helps to improve the performance of a student. Without knowing the purpose
of the technique it will be hard to carry out the process. The issue is
teachers should work more to learn these new techniques and they might lack
concentration on the teaching process and may get stressed out.
Secondly the stake holders of the school may have different
opinions on different ideas. Some may not approve the new installation and
improvement processes. This may consume more time and poor administration
Finally parents should be aware of the school activities and
requirements to help their children to focus more on learning new things.
By implementing a high level continuous plan in the school it will
be able to produce talented students to the future society. They will be the
leaders and role models to encourage and guide the future generations. A
successful teaching system and learning system will result in good results and
this will lead to highly motivated teachers and students to achieve their
The reputation of the school will rise and will become a
well-known teaching institution. Which in turn result in too many students
joining the school and this will create a significant responsibility to the
school to maintain their standards and objectives. Consequently in the long run
the school will maintain the current standard and in addition to that will
implement gradual improvements. A school running with a better high level
continuous improvement plan has the knowledge of where they are lacking and
where to make the improvement. Will obtain the capability of finding the root
causes of the problems. This will help in the long run.
Although there are several benefits by implementing the continuous
improvement plan it faces several difficulties in implementing it.
By overcoming these difficulties and implementing a good plan the
performance levels of teaches and students will increase and as a result the
school will produce excellent future leaders.
David Weller, (2000)
“School attendance problems: using the TQM tools to identify root
causes”, Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 38 Issue: 1, pp.64-82,