INTRODUCTIONDuring Museums’ and ‘Virtual Pets’ all because of ‘virtual

INTRODUCTIONDuring the past 10 years the words ‘Virtual’ and ‘Reality’ became the most exposed and searched words of English Language. Today in this era we have ‘Virtual Universities’, Virtual Doctor’, Virtual Actors’, Virtual Museums’ and ‘Virtual Pets’ all because of ‘virtual Reality’.What is Virtual Reality?Virtual means ‘almost a particular thing or implied’ whereas, Reality means ‘the state of things as they actually exist’, thus Virtual Reality is nothing but ‘Near Reality’. It is a computer generated simulated 3D environment that is creates by using different 3D software’s or applications which compel user to believe it’s ‘Actual Thing’. In short you can say that an interactive 3D Computer-generated simulation that you can explore and feel that you are really present there both physically and mentally.It is also said that VR is about a helmsmanship of Computer generated 3D environment where user is able to steer by walking, Flying and running also examine or evaluate viewpoint which we cannot examine in real world. The main and real benefit of Virtual Reality is animate, pickup virtual object, reposition virtual objects and ability to touch apart from sight and Sound 2.Virtual Reality technology is becoming the accredit technology man-machine correspondences. Moreover, apart from Architecture and Entertainment walkthroughs, Virtual Reality can be used for better evaluations and in Engineering aspects 1.Virtual Reality from past  decades has been achieving new heights, setting new benchmarks and people are astonished to be a part of it whether to play games on VR so if we say Virtual Reality is now orthodox will not be wrong. In Future people will not hesitate on spending their money on Virtual Reality applications in different areas according to their needs or interests.  History of Virtual RealityThe concept of Virtual Reality is not new it started from early 1830’s. In 1838 ‘Sir Charles Wheatstone’ developed a ‘Stereoscope’ to give a better explanation about a Human brain process two-dimension from each eye of three-dimensional single object, in 1849 ‘Sir David Brewster’ invented the ‘lenticular stereoscope’ 5. Later in 1938 ‘The View Master’ was developed by ‘William Gruber’. Early attempts at Virtual Reality was ‘panoramic Paintings and Stereoscopic Photos’. In 1950’s ‘Morton Heilig’ a cinematographer developed Sensorama that would simulate not just sight and sound but all senses. He shot produced and edited himself some short films.In 1960’s mankind achieved new benchmark in terms of Virtual Reality by developing a Head Mounted Display which was also invented by ‘Morton Heilig’ named as, ‘Telesphere Mask’ 3. The concept of ‘Ultimate Display’ means One can not tell difference from actual Reality was given by ‘Ivan Sutherland’ in ‘1965’ where he wants users to interact in Virtual world in realistic way, further in 1968 ‘IVAN Sutherland’ and his student ‘Bob Sproul’ invented the first VR/AR Head mounted display device which was connected to computer unlike previous which was connected to camera named as ‘Sword of Damocles’. Even after all these inventions and benchmarks people use different terms but in 1987 when Visual Programming Lab (VPL) was founded by ‘John Lanier’ the term ‘virtual Reality was Coined. The VPL company was first to sell VR glasses and Gadgets. In 1991 VR games was being developed to play on gaming machines with real time immersive 3D visuals.In 1993 for ‘Arcade Games’ and ‘Mega Drive Console’ ‘Sega VR Headset’ was announced by ‘Sega’, Four games were developed for this product but technical development difficulties lead to huge failure for Sega. In 1995 ‘Nintendo Virtual Boy’ was developed, it was a first portable 3D gaming console but later rejected due to lack of software support. In 1999 the film ‘The Matrix’ by ‘Wachowski Siblings’ hit cinemas in which character of the film are fully  surviving in simulated world. This film impact was major and it brought concept of Virtual Reality or simulation in to the conventions.Virtual reality in twenty first century has seen lightning progress in the development of VR. In 2013 low persistence display which make smear free display of environment possible this work was done by ‘Valve’.After this recently many companies has launches Virtual Reality products like google launches Google Cardboard and Google Daydream, Samsung took thIs concept ahead by launches Samsung Gear VR which has more features. Oculus Rift, Playstation 4 and Htc Vive are  some best example of Advanced features in Head mounted displays (HMD) such as, hand controllers and Degree of freedom upto 6 DOF’s.Applications of Virtual RealityVirtual reality is not only known for gaming purpose it also cover many areas such as, Virtual Reality in Military, Virtual Reality in Healthcare, , Virtual Reality in Fashion, Virtual Reality in Business, Virtual Reality in sports, Virtual Reality in scientific visualization, Virtual Reality in construction, Virtual Reality in Education, Virtual Reality in Entertainment, Virtual Reality in Engineering, Virtual Reality in Media and Virtual Reality in live and Real life events. some of them are common due to excess of software development in those particular areas, while other not so common areas of Virtual Reality have only one or two software support.Virtual Reality in Healthcare is helping in improving health by five ways such as Pain management, physical therapy, fear and phobias, cognitive rehabilitation and training doctors and nurses. Scientific research says that Virtual reality is proving to be very helpful when at some instances procedure is very painful but if a patient is less active and is immersed in Virtual 3D environment then it help people tolerate pain. As for physical therapy it is mainly used by physiotherapist to help patient in moving their body parts such as if patient is playing and he needs to catch a ball in simulated environment as per his/her instinct patient will use their hands in order to catch a ball but patient does not realise that they are using because they are fully immersed in 3D Virtual environment so no pain anxiety is associated with it. Coming to fear and phobias if someone is afraid of any particular thing, environment that is they avoid being in that situation or environment as per their instincts but this is the most established and growing area of Medical Virtual Reality treatment. They treat phobias with a technique called Virtual Reality exposure therapy without having any physical pain people face their most dreaded phobias and VRET helps them to reduce it, sometimes it requires therapist help in case if fear of something  is very serious and will be having panic attack during session so they will need therapist assistant to keep them calm and relax. This VRET treatment is being used to treat ‘Fear of Flying’, ‘Fear of Heights’, Fear of Spider’, ‘Fear of Injections’, ‘Fear of Dead bodies’, ‘Fear of Water’ etc. most common are ‘Fear of Flying’, ‘Fear of Heights’, Fear of Spider’. It also help patient in recovering from PTSD (Post traumatic disorder). Patients who are suffering from trauma like anything tragic happened in-front of them and are not able to cope up with it PTSD help those patients to reduce trauma for example they first take input from patient of a similar scenario that what will you suggest a person how to keep up with life and norms of the world in this condition if patient reply in a positive view so they record it and then asked about what happened and how you are coping with things eventually,  being immersed in an Virtual 3D environment patient will let it heart out then application plays patients own recorded voice it helps many people to reduce anxiety and traumatic disorder at certain level. VRET application  helps people in reducing phobias by providing simulated software according to their phobia intensity, for example if a person is suffering from Height Phobia environment will be like a high roof building and if person is fully immersed he/she will think like they are standing on it and seeing things from a certain height and it will not be hurting physically and no anxiety issues so it will reduce the phobia at some points.Current state of Research :Virtual reality exposure therapy places the client in a computer-generated world where they “experience” the various stimuli related to their phobia. The client wears a head-mounted display with small TV monitors and stereo earphones to receive both visual and auditory cues. After an intake session and skill building sessions to teach the patient how to control automatic responses to anxiety-provoking situations, the therapist and client collaborate to create a hierarchy of anxiety-inducing situations. In careful, controlled stages, the client is exposed to these virtual experiences that elicit increasingly higher levels of anxiety. Each stage can be repeated until the client is comfortable with the experience and satisfied with their response. At every step, the therapist can see and hear what the client is experiencing in the virtual world. If the level of anxiety becomes overwhelming, the client can return to a less stressful level of treatment, or simply remove the head-mounted display and exit the virtual world. Cognitive rehabilitation is when people can not decide what to do and take simple decisions for example making weekend plans etc. Virtual Reality is, just not for patients . It also provide welfare to Healthcare professionals as in Doctors, nurses and surgeons in training them. Training need be provided by high professionals. It is also used in Practising Operations, Teach infection control, time management, to carry out routine procedures and to learn anatomy.Adoption of Virtual Reality in Military includes Army, Navy and Airforce is for training purpose of cadets, soldiers. this is best in way to train soldiers in order to provide them opportunity of gaining an experience from dangerous situation and combat situations. It help them to learn how to react and how to tackle dangers. though it will be far a lot more different from original situations. For Example engaging with an enemy in a dangerous situation will help them learn to react efficiently without involving in real life risk. If a soldier is new to everything having no experience of difficult, disastrous and dangerous situations it will help that soldier to have some learning experience and gain confidence in its own self. Military uses of Virtual Reality are ‘Battlefield training’, ‘Battlefield simulation’, Flight simulation’ and ‘Vehicle Simulation’. PTSD application is mainly developed for military soldiers to help them cope up with those scenarios of war and disastrous situations. There are some various military applications such as ‘Virtual reality war’, ‘Virtual reality and the Army’, ‘Virtual reality and the Navy’, ‘Virtual reality and the Air force’, ‘Virtual reality army training’, ‘Virtual reality army exercises’, ‘Virtual reality air force training’, ‘Virtual reality navy training’, ‘Virtual reality combat training’, ‘Virtual reality combat simulation’, ‘Virtual reality military weapons’ and ‘Virtual reality military history’.Virtual Reality can be use for live and Real life events for live streaming for example if a person is not present in any conference due to any circumstances so they live streaming through Virtual Reality will be like being present there. User will feel they are physically present there. It also resolves an issue of limited seats available at any event user can be there without physically being there.Hardware specifications During last two years most used VR devices are divided into two categories mobile platform and Desktop platform. Mobile platform has Google Cardboard, Samsung gear VR Google daydream VR and Hololens while Desktop Platforms have Oculus Rift CVI, Playstation VR, HTC Vive and OSVR given below are table of specifications of best VR devicesDeviceResolutionField of ViewPixels/DegreePerformanceGoogle Cardboard1280*786 to 2560*144090 degree7-14Phone HardwareSamsung Gear VR2560*144096 degree13Phone HardwareOculus Rift CVI2160*1200110 degree10High-End PCPlaystation VR1920*1080100 degree10Playstation 4HTC Vive2160*1200110 degree10High-End PCTable 1: Specifications of Head Mounted Display_1DeviceSicknessFreedom Of DegreeInteractionsPlatformGoogle CardboardMinimal3One ButtoniOS, AndroidSamsung Gear VRSome3Trackpad (option controller)AndroidOculus Rift CVIMinimal6 (Partial)Xbox controller (2 hand-held controller)WindowsPlaystation VRMinimal6 (Partial)PS Move ControllerPlaystation  4HTC ViveMinimal62 Hand Held ControllersWindowsTable 2: Specifications of Head Mounted Display_2DeviceDevelopment EnvironmentMarket PlaceGoogle CardboardOSX, WindowsApp Store, Google PlaySamsung Gear VROSX, WindowsGoogle Play, Oculus ShareOculus Rift CVIWindowsStream, Oculus Share, DirectPlaystation VRClosed Developed ProgramPlaystation StoreHTC ViveWindowsStream DirectTable 3: Specifications of Head Mounted Display_3ConclusionsVirtual Reality is now the most used technology of this era . It is most frequently learned technology by developers and holds a very bright  future in terms of developing new techniques and application area where Virtual Reality can be useful. Starting from Panoramic paintings, stereoscope to now head mounted displays with advanced features and Hand controllers also some devices have 6 DOFS which provide better view of simulated environment at each dimension.Also low persistence is keep the viewpoints intact when fully immersed.References1 Dai, Fan, (1998).’Virtual Reality for Industrial Applications’.2 Vince, John, (2004). ‘Introduction to Virtual Reality’.3 Virtual Reality Society. (2017). History of Virtual Reality from The Fresh UK. Virtual Reality Society. Retrieved 17 October 2017, from, https://www.vrs.org.uk/virtual-reality/history.html4 Virtual Reality Society. (2017). Introduction of Virtual Reality from The Fresh UK. Virtual Reality Society. 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