NEED FOR THE PROJECT Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), belongs

NEED FOR THE PROJECT

Wheat
(Triticum aestivum L.), belongs to
family Poaceae (Cope, 1984). One third of the world population use wheat as a
major food source. About 80% of the foodstuff is obtained from the cereal crops
and wheat constitutes a major portion of it. Wheat is cultured globally in about
27 countries of the world (Stubbs et al., 1986). Major wheat cultivating
countries include; Australia, U.S.A, Ukraine, Turkey, Russia, Canada, China,
E.U., India and Pakistan (FAO, 2003).

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 In wheat cultivation Pakistan ranks are on the
8th position. Wheat plays a key role in the economy and is the most
substantial agricultural unit of Pakistan as it chip in about 14.4% to the
total crop sector and 3.1% to total domestic production. In many industries it
is used for synthesis of many by products and also as a raw material. 44% of
the total production is mainly contributed by Southern Punjab (Ahmad et al.,
2005).

A
random nutrient distribution has been observed in wheat grains as the germ is moderately
loaded with vitamins, scutellum is rich in thiamine; large concentration of
phytic acid, vitamins and proteins is present in the external layer and lots of
proteins and starch are occupied in inner-endosperm of the grain (NARC
Islamabad, 1984).

Seed
priming is the controlled hydration process which enhances pre-germination
activities of seed but no radicle emergence is observed (Bradford 1986). Different
priming mediums can be used for the seed priming. For example water, salt
solutions, solid matrix, polyamines and plant growth regulators (Basra et al.,
2006). Following the priming process, removed seeds are rinsed twice or thrice
and dried with the help of forced air (Giri and Schillinger 2003) so that they
can be handled in usual routine.

Seeds
which are primed, show better germination percentage (Afzal et al., 2006) and
uniformity (Farooq et al., 2006). Molecular, physiological and biochemical
changes are proved to be the reason for better performance of seed (Sung and
Chang 1993).

OBJECTIVES

·        
To study the effect of different
district water on germination of different wheat seed varieties.

·        
To find the suitability of different
wheat varieties in relation to different regions.

·        
To check the parameters of the seedlings
of different wheat varieties.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Murungu
(2011) conducted experiments on wheat varieties to study the effects of seed
priming on germination of seed and emergence of seedling. Experiments focused
on determining the effects of water potentials and optimum duration of seed
soaking for the maximum emergence. Resultantly priming proved to be a factor
beneficial for lowering the time of emergence and showed positive results in
germination too.

Muhammad
et al. (2011) investigated the
effects of priming of seeds with polyamines and then re-drying them to check
further benefits. Four solutions were selected for experimental purpose i.e
aerated spermidine solution, spermine, distilled water and putrescine. Two sets
of seeds were primed separately. One set was surface washed thrice, with
distilled water and dried closer to original moisture and the other set was
used immediately after surface drying. Use of surface dried seeds proved to be
more effective.

Jafar
et al. (2012) conducted experiments
in saline field to test the potential of seed priming techniques on wheat
varieties. Ascorbate, salicylic acid, kinetin, CaCl2 and salicylicate were used
for seed priming of wheat seeds. Then the comparison was made with hydro-primed
seeds. They concluded that osmopriming with CaCl2 was more effective in gaining
high yield of grains.

Harris
et al. (2001) used seed priming
technique in different areas of Nepal, India and Pakistan and concluded that
the time taken for 50% germination of wheat seeds was almost halved and farmers
reported that they had better foliage development after seed priming but they
practically faced several difficulties in priming the seeds in larger volume.

Ghana
and William (2003) conducted experiments on two cultivars of winter wheat
namely Edwin and Madsen under laboratory conditions, field and greenhouse
setup; to check the effect of seed priming on the emergence and yield of the
wheat crop in low precipitation dryland areas. Polyethylene glycol, potassium
chloride and water were used as priming agents in the greenhouse. They
concluded that seed priming has circumscribed practical effect on enhancing the
yield and emergence of winter wheat in unused summer land.

Farooq
et al. (2008) conducted a study to
check the effect of different seed priming techniques on the performance of
late sown wheat crop. Different strategies including hydro-priming for 24
hours, on-farm seed priming, osmohardening with CaCl2 or KCl for 12 hours and
seed hardening for 12 hours were applied. Positive effect on harvest index,
straw and grain yield, number of tillers, stand establishment and allometry was
observed but number of spikelet, plant height and 1000 grain weight were not
affected by these techniques.

Iqbal
et al. (2013) studied the effects of
seed priming on poor quality seeds of wheat. They harvested the seeds from the
wheat crop sown in November and December and primed them with CaCl2 for 12
hours. The results they drew were in favor of seed priming as the seeds of poor
quality when primed, performed comparatively better in field conditions.

Farooq
et al. (2012) primed the wheat seeds
with ascorbic acid to check if it affects the drought resistance of the seeds. They
drew the conclusion that priming with ascorbic acid has positive effects on
drought resistance as proline accumulation and antioxidant action of phenolics
and ascorbic acid lead to membrane stability, tissue water maintenance and
uniform seedling growth and stand.

Fahim
et al. (2012) used selenium to prime
the wheat seeds to check its effect on growth and biochemical changes under
water deficit conditions. Experiment was conducted on two cultivars of wheat
i.e. Pasban-90 and Kohistan-97. Results showed that seedlings’ biomass was not
affected with Se seed priming under normal conditions, but it increased
significantly with increase in rates of Se under drought conditions.

Michael
et al. (2012) used completely
randomized design to conduct experiments to improve the growth of wheat seed
under salinity conditions. Seeds primed with PEG6000 at pressure of
-1 MP and normal seeds and different concentrations of NaCl were tested. They
concluded that seed germination was improved at all the concentrations of NaCl.
The effect appeared to be diminished at the concentration of up to 200 mM but
give satisfactory results up at 50-100 mM. Primed seed resulted in higher and
faster germination under salinity conditions.

Saman
et al. (2016) experimented with seed
priming technique under several abiotic stress conditions to check the wheat
growth. Wheat cultivars’ seed NARC-2011 and NARC-2009 were surface sterilized
and primed using different techniques and stress was applied by cutting the
supply of water for 9 days, for seven days salt was introduced in the supplied
water to induce salinity 40C temperature was provided to induce heat stress.
Seed priming proved to be a successful method against several abiotic stresses.

Yousaf
et al. (2011) evaluated response of
few wheat varieties at two different seed levels and under several levels of
salinity. All parameters were improved except Na+ contents of shoot
which decreased prominently.

Iqbal
et al. (2006) used three priming
agents CaCl2, KCl and NaCl to induce change in endogenous hormonal
level in wheat pants under salinity conditions. All these agents proved to be
effective against salt stress but their influence in changing the levels of
various hormones were distinguished in two cultivars.

Mahnaz
et al. (2014) used seed priming
technique as a source of salt stress to check the germination of four varieties
of wheat seeds. Four different NaCl treatments were applied through the water
being used for the germination of wheat seeds. Seeds disinfected with the 5% sodium
in hypochlorite solution were afterwards washed thrice by distilled water.
Seeds in petri dishes were placed in the growth chamber at the temperature of
25­o C for the duration of fourteen days. Results showed that the
influence of several treatments on the germination was quite prominent and
Zarin variety appeared most tolerant against salt conditions.

Attaullah
et al. (2017) examined response of 14
wheat varieties with two seed treatments and four levels of salt conditions in
sand as the medium of growth and concluded that salt stress does great damage
to growth characters of wheat while priming with CaCl2 proved really
effective in lifting the adverse effects of salinity in wheat seeds. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The
research will be conducted in two different environments. One is green house
and second is Seed Science Laboratory of department Seed Science and
Technology, in University of Agriculture, Faisalabad under Completely
Randomized Design (CRD). Seeds will be collected from main seed storage of department
of Plant Breeding and Genetics of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

In
laboratory conditions water will be used as a priming agent in this research.
Firstly tube well water from districts of Lahore, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and
Pattoki will be collected. PH of each sample will be measured with the help of
pH meter. PH meter and beaker in which the pH is going to be measured should
properly be washed with the distilled water to wash off any contaminants
attached to its surface so that the original pH of the sample water remain
undisturbed. The effect of these water samples will be monitored on four diverse
varieties of wheat seeds separately. The varieties used in this research will
be UJALA, Chakwal, Punjab 2011 and AAS 2017. Before soaking the seeds in the
water 200 seeds per variety will be weighed with the help of weight balance.
Then seeds of every variety will be soaked in district water samples for 9-10
hours and aeration will be provided with the help of aquarium pump. The treated
seeds will then be dried under shade for 1-2 days. Dried seeds will then be
weighed again using weight balance. From each treatment, 30 seeds were taken
and placed on double layer of filter paper thoroughly moistened, in petri
dishes. Petri dishes were properly sterilized before the use. Petri dishes containing
seeds will be provided with the temperature of 21 ± 1o C in the
growth chamber for appropriate germination. Seed will be regarded as germinated
after the radicle protrusion of 2mm.

In
the green house sand will be used as a growth medium in this research. Four
wheat varieties will be used to examine the effect of different district water.
The same procedure, as mentioned above, will be followed for the priming of
seeds. After that sand will be sterilized by washing it thoroughly thrice. A
standard pot of capacity 5-6 kg will be utilized for all the treatments. 50
seeds of each variety, treated with all four district water separately, were
sown at uniform depths.

The
parameters used to determine the effect of priming on different wheat seed
varieties will be included germination percentage, shoot length (cm), leaves
per plant, leaf area (cm2), root length, seedling vigor, fresh
weight and dry weight.