Resource The vitality of cities depends on spatial relationships

Resource consumption
drivers and pathways to reduction: economy, policy and lifestyle impact on
material flows at the national and urban scale

In this study consumption of resource is focused in
national (Sweden) scale and metropolitan (Stockholm and Gothenburg) scale for
both the fossil fuels and nonfuel resources for the period 1996-2011. Material
Flow Analysis (MFA) method is used as a tool to analyse the study area, for the
reason that MFA accounts both economic and social aspects.

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The result shows that material type resource
consumption is similar for both country and city scales, fossil fuels and
construction material are the dominant flows in cities. Fossil fuel consumption
has been continuously decreasing in Stockholm where as it has been doubled in
Gothenburg during 2011 comparing to 1996. The result also shows that resource
consumption is also impacted by the lifestyle within the cities based on income
and building energy has been reduced to halve. In conclusion, big steps towards
lessening in resource consumption is needed.

The changing metabolism of
cities

In this report data of metabolism studies from eight
cities over 5 continents conducted various times since 1965 was collected and
compared, by bring together the data in consistent units. The studies data
includes water, material, energy and nutrient flow from additional cities.

The result reveals that most of the city studies
exhibits increased per capita metabolism with respect to water, energy,
materials and wastewater. Also it shows emission from air pollutant and changes
in solid waste are mixed. The report also reviews the negative impact of
metabolic processes on sustainability of cities, which are altered ground water
levels, local material exhaustion, toxic material accumulation, summer heat
island and irregular nutrient accumulation. The vitality of cities depends on
spatial relationships with surrounding hinterlands and global resource webs. On
one hand increasing metabolism denotes deforestation, depletion of farmland,
species diversity on the other hand urbanisation with more traffic and
pollution. To conclude, further more urban metabolism studies are required (Christopher Kennedy, 2007)

The
study of urban metabolism and its applications to urban planning and design

As mentioned earlier the development of urban
metabolism concept was started by Wolman in the year 1965, from then 15-20
complex studies of urban metabolism for different cities has been undertaken
and done by many others like Zucchetto(1975) for Miami, Stanhill (1977) and
Odum (1983) for Paris etc.

Wolman’s attention focused on system-wide effects of
the consumption of goods and waste generation within the environment of urban
areas, when he studied an American city of 1 million population using national
data on food, water and fuel use along with production rate of waste, sewage
and air pollution to determine per capita inflow and outflow rate (Decker, 2000)

This article stresses on the real-world applications
of urban metabolism which is enriched with data and have potential applications,
such as quantifying urban GHG emission, estimating material stock and flow by
mathematical models, urban metabolism as a tool to guide sustainable design.