The mean scores of (9.3 ±1.585)
questionnaire was above the theoretical mid-point (61% with a 10-point and 44%
with 9-point). However, overall scores were normally distributed and Kolmogorov–Smirnov
test (0.006) denoted normal distribution. Distributions of student responses to
different questions are presented in table 1.
Prevalence and attitude toward doping
The prevalence of personal use of
banned substances among physical education students is 2.7%. While 6.8% are
willing to use any prohibited substances in the future. About 49.1% had met someone who was taking
drugs. About 78.8% are against such a person being presented in their vicinity.
Almost 94.1% of the participants think that using prohibited substances is
considered a kind of fraud and deceit and 85.1% is considered as a form of
When the mean scores were compared
between those who reported doping use and those who claimed not using doping,
the difference was of no statistical significance (Table 2). A majority
(204/221, 92.3%) who claimed staying away from doping in the future recorded
higher mean scores than those who willing to use PEDs (Table 2). The difference
was statistically significant.
Knowledge of doping and welcoming
Only 28.4% of the studied
population indicated that they had heard of the IOC/WADA list of banned
substances. Only 44.3% of who said yes could name drug/drugs on the banned
list. About 78.5% reported that they are aware about world anti-doping program,
only 22.5% could mention the role of this program in terms of control doping
among athletes by detection, awareness and continuing education to keep
fairness, justice and spirit of sport. Around 94.5 of the participants
confirmed the importance of knowledge to physical education students in their
career and general life.
Reasons of use & Beliefs
The most frequently chosen reason
for doping (55.8%) is the considerable pressure on the athlete by expectations
of others such as coaches, audience, family, friends and even society itself.
The distribution of different responses about reasons of doping was presented
in figure 1. While 50% of who reported personal use of doping believed that
doping use is owing to a very strong desire to achieve the best results and
33.3% of them due to lack of knowledge about the effects of doping.
In terms of health consequences, 97.7% of
respondents reported that using doping substances have negative health
consequences. Around 14.8% believed that using of doping substances are
efficacious in improving performance and considered the reason behind the
usage. In this study, just over the half (51.4%) agreed that some of the
current top athletes used doping substances. Interestingly, the same percentage
(50%) was recorded among those who reported personal use of doping.
Attitudes towards doping prevention
In the present study, 41.3% thought
that current doping controls cannot detect the athletes who took dope.
Moreover, 62% of the respondents confirm that there is a way to deceive the
doping control tests.
Sports and doping scandals
The most infected sports by doping are
in figure 2. About 21% of the responses were related to athletics and Judo,
football 17%, then wrestling 12%. While least marked sports with doping
scandals are in figure 3. Around 26% of the responses were related to swimming,
football 18%, then fencing 14%.
The use of PEDs has been a problem
in sport for long time. It was recommended to further expand the current doping
data to all geographical and cultural areas to understand the global situation
and to allow better comparisons between countries (Morente-Sánchez and Zabala 2013). Up to authors’
knowledge, there is no study about doping in this locality. The results of
present study could give a preliminary data about the knowledge, beliefs and
attitudes of a group from physical education students toward doping to
understand and consequently could prevent doping among young people in respect
to their culture and locality.
Prevalence and attitude toward doping
The mean overall score indicated
that no problem to expose beliefs and explicit attitude toward doping. The prevalence of
personal use of banned substances
and even that of who willing to use any prohibited substances
in the future in the present
study is very small and negligible in comparison to prevalence of earlier
studies taking into account their young age (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). This is also
could be attributed to their culture. We should put in our mind until now they
did not receive any course within their curriculum about doping, this specific
course will be taken in the last year.
The estimates of use among their
mates or any other people around them are significantly more than self-reported
use. This percent is consistent with other previous study which explained that
high percentage of students is familiar with the doping effects mostly through
their mates or acquaintances (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013). Most of
students (78.8%) are against such a person being presented in their vicinity.
percent is higher than that was presented by previous study (47%) (Pavlovi? and Idrizovi? 2013).
is very important that the majority of participants have a negative opinion on
this matter and this could support their ant-doping attitudes. The engagement of
doping was encouraged by coaches, friends, family members and other athletes.
From prevention point of view, minimization of the behavior towards the use of
banned substances could be encouraged by surrounding peoples (Dunn and Thomas 2012).