Toilets, one of the most important fluid technologies in our world, had impacted our lives in many ways. We use toilets everyday – at school, home, restaurants and shopping malls. But who invented toilets?Flush toilets were first invented in India and Pakistan. Thomas Crapper, was a plumber who founded Thomas Cropper & Co in London. Thomas Cropper & Co invented and owned the world’s first bath and sink in the 19th century. He didn’t invent the toilet, he only thought of it and he owned the company for improving toilet technology in the late 1800s ( His name also comes from an English Word “crap”).The flushing toilet was invented by Sir John Harington in 1596, 300 years earlier than Thomas Crapper invented the toilet factory. Harrington’s toilet included a flush valve that would release water from the tank to clean and wash away garbage and waste. John Harington called his toilet the Ajax and one of his installations was for Queen Elizabeth I, at the Richmond Palace. Advances in technology that accompanied the Industrial Revolution helped to develop more of the flushing toilet. In 1775, Alexander Cumming designed a toilet know as the s-trap. S-trap sllows standing water to seal off the bow so that gases can not rise and escape to the air that you breathe in the bathroom. Toilets have been very useful and very popular from the day it was invented.A toilet is a fixed receptacle into which a person will put their wastes in. A toilet is made up of three parts: the bowl, a tank and a siphon. It works because of gravity. When you flush the toilet, the water will go to from an area of high energy to low energy. When you pull the handle to flush the toilet, the water empties the bowl with a very high velocity. There are several types of toilets but when it comes to flushing systems, we can classify them to gravity assisted and pressure assisted.Gravity toilets have been around for decades. Gravity assist is the most common type of toilet of all, it is very popular and most toilets inside homes, houses, restaurants and shopping centres are gravity assistedProcess of flushed waste with a gravity assisted toilet:After the person is left with their wastes in the toilet, they push a button or a handle leverWater form the tank is released – after the handle of the toilet is pushed, at the bottom of the tank, a chain lifts up and it allows the water to rush down through the flush opening and into the toilet bowl- when you pull the handle to flush the water, the water empties the bowl with a very high velocity- the tupe which is underneath the bowl, is an area of low pressure and it is filled with air The rush of water, makes the siphon to suck all the waste and water in the bowl The water supply attached to the pipe, makes the toilet to refill the tank and the bowl of the toiletThe float ball, rises the water until the level is sufficient and suitable- pressure difference is one of the reasons that water is forced out of the tube in the bowlGravity assisted toilets have had a huge impact on our environments since the day it was invented. They have been around for decades and they are proven to work. Not only they are proven to work and they are the best toilets, they are also simple and they have a simple shape and size. This toilet is an affordable option for toilet, even more affordable than pressure assisted ones. This made the toilets to be part of the best toilets listGravity assisted toilets can be very useful and might had a huge impact on the environment, they are also bad in some ways.Gravity assisted toilet were purchased after January 1994, the federal law required that it uses 1.6 gallons per flush, but it actually wastes 3.5 to 7 gallons with every single flush. The average American flushes for five times a day is 8 gallows to 35 gallons of water and waste going down the tube. Because gravity assisted toilets waste a lot of water, some people use a low-flush toilet or low flow toilet.In 1988, Massachusetts became the first state in the U.S to introduce the use of low flush toilets A low flush toilet is a flush toilet that uses less water than a full flush toilet. Low-flush toilets us 4.8 litres or less per flush. Low flush toilets came to canada in 1990s because to make a response to water conservation concerns. Low flush toilets include single flush models which uses 1.6 g for the full flush. One of the problems of the low flush toilet is that they often had a poor design that required more than one flush to get rid of the waste and it resulted in more water used than a single flush or a standard toilet.Another type of toilet that had a huge impact on the environment are pressure-assist toilets. If the pressure of pressure-assist toilets are higher, then it will keep the bowl much cleaner so it doesn’t need to be cleaned as frequently. There is also no sweating condition in the outside of the tank in humid condition. Pressure-assist toilets are very good but they can be very bad and they also have cons. One of the bad fact is that it is very noisy so when it is flushed, it will make a loud whooshing sound for five to ten seconds. Another bad fact is that it is very expensive to purchase or buy. Gravity flow toilets are normally half of the cost of the pressure-assisted toilets.The invention of the toilets had a huge impact on the environment since 1596. Toilets have impacted our health and well being. People from around the world, get diseases such as malaria or even fevers for unclean and dirty toilets. Around 2.5 billion people in developing countries do not have access to water. This is because of some of the health problems people facing in poor communities including water pollution, transmission of disease or even dirty toilets. Installing and operation sewage and treatment plants is expensive for the poor villages and it is unaffordable. In 2007, the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance was created to create a collaborative platform from countries all around the world. The Reinvent The Toilet Challenge is an aim to provide affordable low-water consumption toilet system. Some of the efforts being made are: upgrading toilet prototype facilities and technologies, and launching social programs. Sustainable solutions for poor villages and communities can solve a range or social and environmental problems.