Worldwide, are used, which are considered to be quite

Worldwide, prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of solid tumor
in men and the second most lethal after lung neoplasms. Most of the
prostate cancer cases, are diagnosed in late stage due to absence of symptoms
and the lack of prognostic, non-invasive and cost effective methods. The above indicate the urgency for
development of new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as evolution
in the field of treatment. MiRNAs represent an interesting target for biomarker
and treatment discovery since they interact with various biological pathways.
Alterations
in their expression may imply that the regulation of several cellular processes
is also altered and conforms cancer progression (1).  The present research will be based on examination
of patient samples with malignant and benign prostate cancers. These samples
will be analyzed for dysregulated miRNA expression and subsequently for their potential
contribution to important pathways in prostate cancer initiation and progression
(2).

The clinical incidence and mortality of prostate cancer vary among
regions of the world, age groups and the amount of exposure to general risk
factors. Studies have shown that African American men are
approximately 70% more likely to develop prostate cancer in their lifetime
compared to Caucasian and Hispanic men. The risk of developing prostate cancer
also increases with age and in case of genetic predisposition. Furthermore, the
general lifestyle, such as diet and hormonological therapies, has a major
impact on the epidemiology of the disease (3).  In the Netherlands, during the last decade, a
remarkable increase in prostate cancer incidence has been observed. The main
reason for this increase is the diagnostic strategies that are used, which are
considered to be quite invasive (transrectal ultrasound, (thin) needle biopsies
etc.) and patients avoid to proceed to examination (4).

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This current research will be the start of a new age in the field of
prognosis and treatment for prostate cancer. We aim to find and develop
new, less invasive, sensitive and cost effective methods of early diagnosis and
therapy, by investigating miRNAs that are involved in cancer progression. In
order to perform this study, we will create groups of patients based on the
histopathological characteristics of the tumors and PSA values:  patients with benign tumors and PSA levels
from 2 to 10 ng/ml will consist the “Control Group”, patients with malignant
tumors and PSA levels from 2 to 10 ng/ml will consist “PCa Group 1” and
finally, patients with malignant tumors and PSA levels above 10 ng/ml will
consist “PCa Group 2”. The patients of each group will be from 45 to 85 year
old, treatment-naïve and without distant metastases (5). The
expression of different miRNAs in biofluids (blood, urine) and tissue specimen,
will be analyzed with qRT-PCR. The constitution of the groups according to
these criteria, will help us to create a comprehensive view of the altered
miRNA expression in different cases of prostate cancer. This will contribute to
the evolution of non-invasive, accurate diagnostic methods and novel treatment
approaches.